Flashcards in Pregnancy And Genetics Test 5 Deck (91):
How much sperm is deposited into the female vagina during intercourse?
Millions of sperm
How many sperm actually make it alive to the fallopian tube? Why do some sperm not make it?
Only a 100 to 1000 actually make it.
Leak out of the vagina
Destroyed by females acidic pH environment
Defected or abnormal sperm
Immune cells destroy it
How fast can sperm reach the egg?
In a couple of minutes
What two processes does sperm under go to be able to penetrate the egg?
This is the process by which the glycoprotein coat and covering surrounding the acrosome of the sperm starts to break down
How long does capacitation take and what starts it?
Takes about 2 to 10 hours
It has started by the uterine secretions
The ovulated oocyte is surrounded by what two main layer?
Sperm cells must get through both these layers to get to the egg cells
Superficially: corona radiates cells
Deeper: zone pellucida membrane
How do you sperm cells get through the layers to get to the egg?
What happens when a sperm cell passes through the second layer a.k.a. Zona pellucida
Sperm is enzymes that Unglues the layers from each other
The two gametes will join together to form a haploid cell (one unit)
To prevent other sperm from passing through the Zona Pellicida what reaction occurs?
What is cortical reaction?
Destruction of the sperm receptors on the semiconductor layer
Detaches sperm cells that are already attached to the receptors
What releases enzymes that break down the cells and the sons pellucida
Acrosomes on the sperms heads
The nucleus of the sperm combines with the nucleus of the egg which has 23 chromosomes each creating a single cell with 46 chromosomes. This fertilized egg is now called a what?
This results when two eggs or ovulated and then fertilize my separate sperm
These type of twins do not have the same genetic information. They may be the same or different gender. Each twin implants on a different part of the urine wall and develops in its own placenta
Two eggs and two sperm
Fraternal twins a.k.a. dizygotic
These type of twins almost always share the same placenta however each develops in a separate amniotic sac.
This is when I fertilized egg divides into two and carry identical genetic information
One egg and one sperm
When an egg is fertilized it initiates a developmental process that lasts until when?
Until the fetus is delivered
The is the period of growth before birth
The prenatal period System of what three major stages?
This is the stage where first cellular divisions of fertilized egg happens
It travels through the Fallopian tubes to the uterus
ImPlantation of fertilized egg into the endometrium
After an egg is fertilized by sperm cell is referred to as what?
The first cellular division of the zygote does not increase in size but increases in what?
72 hours after fertilization how many cells are formed and what is it called?
How many days after fertilization does the morula enter the uterine cavity where it floats for two or three days
3 to 4
After the morula -Cell clusters begin to divide and form what?
It consists of outer layer of cells and inner cell mass called what ?? which eventually forms the placenta while the inner cell mass becomes the Embryo
How many days after ovulation does the blastocyte attach to the endometrium?
What is the process called?
This is the process in which the embryo forms and develops
The embryonic stage begins with the fertilization of an egg and last until what week post fertilization?
The embryonic stages primary objective is to form what three germ layers?
These layers will form into all the organs of the body
Mesoderm, ectoderm, endoderm
This is a see-through sack that completely enveloped the embryo
It protects the embryo from trauma as well as changes in temperature
The fetus breathes the fluid and swallows it
Why does the volume remains stable?
The fetus regularly urinate into the sac
This is the outermost membrane it surrounds the other membranes
This develops The umbilical cord
Later it becomes part of the urinary bladder
This produces red blood cells until the sixth week, Then it is taken over by the liver.
It also helps formation of the digestive tract
This is a temporary Organ that originates from embryonic and endometrial tissue
It provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus and removes waste products from the babies blood
Where is the placenta located?
It attaches to the wall of the uterus and the babies umbilical cord
After delivery of the baby what happens to the placenta?
Detaches and slouches off
This is the connection between the developing fetus in the placenta
Umbilical cord consists of what blood vessels?
This helps the fetal heart pump deoxygenated nutrient blood back into placenta
This supplies the fetus with oxygenated nutrient blood
What does the fetal stage begin?
Week 9 and through delivery
On week nine the fetus has grown how many inches and how many ounces? How many to birth?
1 inch and a half ounce
To 14 inches to 7+pounds
The growth of the fetus is dependent on what?
The female organ systems, nutrients, and waste products of the fetus
How many trimesters in pregnancy are there?
First trimester of pregnancy is how many weeks?
Second trimester of pregnancy is how many weeks
The third trimester of pregnancy is how many weeks?
Term pregnancy is considered how many weeks?
Infants delivered before the end of what week are considered premature?
Embryonic development is how many weeks?
fetal development is how many weeks?
This includes both the embryonic and fetal development stage
It is most crucial to the baby's development
Most miscarriages and birth defects occur during this trimester
Nazia morning sickness, fatigue, breast tenderness and frequent urination are all common for the mother during the stage
1st Trimester 0-12 weeks
This is referred to as the golden. Because many of the undesired side effects of pregnancy are gone
Maybe develop heartburn, constipation, back pain, abdominal pain, leg cramps
2nd trimester 13-28 weeks
This is the Final stages of fetal development in rapid growth of fetus
Uterus gets bigger because fetus is bigger
Shortness of breath, urinary continents, varicose vein, hemorrhoids, increase blood pressure, heartburn, stomach disturbances
What 6 organ systems change in the mother during pregnancy?
This represents the end of pregnancy and is the process of giving birth to the baby
This is expelling the infant from the uterus
What happens to the placenta right before labor is initiated
Estrogen levels are secreted from the placenta
and the high estrogen levels stimulate the uterus to prepare for a contraction which stimulates cells to increase oxytocin receptor production
What Can create false labor contractions? Called Braxton hicks contractions
The rising estrogen levels from the placenta
What are the three stages to labor?
This is the process of passing traits from parents to offspring
What did the traits of heredity include?
Hair and Eye color, personality, height, diseases/conditions
The study of heredity
Heredity and genetics revolves around our cells what?
These are specific sequences of nucleotides that provide instructions for cells to produce proteins called genes
these create traits in the body
This is an organ is complete set of DNA
How many chromosomes does it have?
All human cells except for germ cells contain how many pairs of chromosomes?
These consist of long strands of tightly coiled DNA
These are traits that each person inherits
They vary in size, ranging from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million
Chromosomes are divided into how many homologous pairs of chromosomes and how many pairs of sex chromosomes?
Each pair of chromosomes consist of inherited chromosomes from the mother and father. What are these chromosomes called?
In females these chromosomes are large and arm designated by the letter X
In males One chromosome is an an x and one is a smaller crowd was on designated by the Y
The location of a specific gene on each chromosome is referred to as what?
How many copies of each gene are there?
Each chromosome copy will carry the same locus for each gene? True or false
These jeans will provide the instructions for specific traits that can be slightly different
You have two copies of the genes found on chromosomes one through what?
Both copies have the same what?
Do they have to be exactly the same ?
Different variations of the genes making them different such as curly or straight hair is referred to as what?
These can be either dominant or recessive
Straight hair is dominant or recessive ?
(Heterozygous or homozygous)
If the alleles are different the person is said to be heterozygous or homozygous?
The location of a specific gene on a chromosome is called it's what?
If a person has two alleles that are the same the person is said to be what? For that trait
When some one is paired with brown and blue eyes the trait is what?
This is a diagram used to determine the odds or probability of a phenotype for particular gene that an offspring can inherent
This is a change in a gene's nucleotide sequence
It leads to faulty protein production
What can cause mutations?
Accidentally DNA replication, radiation, smoke, chemicals, and viruses
What happens when an allele is mutated?
It can be passed onto the offspring
A mutation is a genetic disorder true or false?
If the mutation occurs within the dominant allele it is called what?
It needs how many dominant alleles present?
Autosomal dominant inheritance