Pregnancy And Genetics Test 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pregnancy And Genetics Test 5 Deck (91):
1

How much sperm is deposited into the female vagina during intercourse?

Millions of sperm

2

How many sperm actually make it alive to the fallopian tube? Why do some sperm not make it?

Only a 100 to 1000 actually make it.

Leak out of the vagina
Destroyed by females acidic pH environment
Defected or abnormal sperm
Immune cells destroy it
Uterus contractions

3

How fast can sperm reach the egg?

In a couple of minutes

4

What two processes does sperm under go to be able to penetrate the egg?

Capacitation

Acrosomal reaction

5

This is the process by which the glycoprotein coat and covering surrounding the acrosome of the sperm starts to break down

Capacitation

6

How long does capacitation take and what starts it?

Takes about 2 to 10 hours

It has started by the uterine secretions

7

The ovulated oocyte is surrounded by what two main layer?

Sperm cells must get through both these layers to get to the egg cells

Superficially: corona radiates cells

Deeper: zone pellucida membrane

8

How do you sperm cells get through the layers to get to the egg?

What happens when a sperm cell passes through the second layer a.k.a. Zona pellucida

Sperm is enzymes that Unglues the layers from each other


The two gametes will join together to form a haploid cell (one unit)

9

To prevent other sperm from passing through the Zona Pellicida what reaction occurs?

Cortical reaction

10

What is cortical reaction?

Destruction of the sperm receptors on the semiconductor layer

Detaches sperm cells that are already attached to the receptors

11

What releases enzymes that break down the cells and the sons pellucida

Acrosomes on the sperms heads

12

The nucleus of the sperm combines with the nucleus of the egg which has 23 chromosomes each creating a single cell with 46 chromosomes. This fertilized egg is now called a what?

Zygote

13

This results when two eggs or ovulated and then fertilize my separate sperm

Fraternal twins

14

These type of twins do not have the same genetic information. They may be the same or different gender. Each twin implants on a different part of the urine wall and develops in its own placenta

Two eggs and two sperm

Fraternal twins a.k.a. dizygotic

15

These type of twins almost always share the same placenta however each develops in a separate amniotic sac.

This is when I fertilized egg divides into two and carry identical genetic information

One egg and one sperm

Identical twins
Aka monozygotic

16

When an egg is fertilized it initiates a developmental process that lasts until when?

Until the fetus is delivered

17

The is the period of growth before birth

Prenatal period

18

The prenatal period System of what three major stages?

Preembryonic stage
Embryonic stage
Fetal stage

19

This is the stage where first cellular divisions of fertilized egg happens

It travels through the Fallopian tubes to the uterus

ImPlantation of fertilized egg into the endometrium

Preembryonic stage

20

After an egg is fertilized by sperm cell is referred to as what?

Zygote

21

The first cellular division of the zygote does not increase in size but increases in what?

Cell numbers

22

72 hours after fertilization how many cells are formed and what is it called?

16 cells

Morula

23

How many days after fertilization does the morula enter the uterine cavity where it floats for two or three days

3 to 4

24

After the morula -Cell clusters begin to divide and form what?

It consists of outer layer of cells and inner cell mass called what ?? which eventually forms the placenta while the inner cell mass becomes the Embryo

Blastocyte


Trophoblast

25

How many days after ovulation does the blastocyte attach to the endometrium?

What is the process called?

6

Implantation

26

This is the process in which the embryo forms and develops

Embryogenesis

27

The embryonic stage begins with the fertilization of an egg and last until what week post fertilization?

8th week

28

The embryonic stages primary objective is to form what three germ layers?

These layers will form into all the organs of the body

Mesoderm, ectoderm, endoderm

29

This is a see-through sack that completely enveloped the embryo

It protects the embryo from trauma as well as changes in temperature

The fetus breathes the fluid and swallows it

Why does the volume remains stable?

Amnion

The fetus regularly urinate into the sac

30

This is the outermost membrane it surrounds the other membranes

Chorion

31

This develops The umbilical cord

Later it becomes part of the urinary bladder

Allantois

32

This produces red blood cells until the sixth week, Then it is taken over by the liver.

It also helps formation of the digestive tract

Yolk sac

33

This is a temporary Organ that originates from embryonic and endometrial tissue

It provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus and removes waste products from the babies blood

Placenta

34

Where is the placenta located?

It attaches to the wall of the uterus and the babies umbilical cord

35

After delivery of the baby what happens to the placenta?

Detaches and slouches off

36

This is the connection between the developing fetus in the placenta

Umbilical cord

37

Umbilical cord consists of what blood vessels?

Umbilical arteries
Umbilical veins

38

This helps the fetal heart pump deoxygenated nutrient blood back into placenta

Umbilical arteries

39

This supplies the fetus with oxygenated nutrient blood

Umbilical veins

40

What does the fetal stage begin?

Week 9 and through delivery

41

On week nine the fetus has grown how many inches and how many ounces? How many to birth?

1 inch and a half ounce

To 14 inches to 7+pounds

42

The growth of the fetus is dependent on what?

The female organ systems, nutrients, and waste products of the fetus

43

How many trimesters in pregnancy are there?

3

44

First trimester of pregnancy is how many weeks?

0-12 weeks

45

Second trimester of pregnancy is how many weeks

13-40

46

The third trimester of pregnancy is how many weeks?

29-40

47

Term pregnancy is considered how many weeks?

40 weeks

48

Infants delivered before the end of what week are considered premature?

37 weeks

49

Embryonic development is how many weeks?

0-8 weeks

50

fetal development is how many weeks?

9-40weeks

51

This includes both the embryonic and fetal development stage

It is most crucial to the baby's development

Most miscarriages and birth defects occur during this trimester

Nazia morning sickness, fatigue, breast tenderness and frequent urination are all common for the mother during the stage

1st Trimester 0-12 weeks

52

This is referred to as the golden. Because many of the undesired side effects of pregnancy are gone

Maybe develop heartburn, constipation, back pain, abdominal pain, leg cramps

2nd trimester 13-28 weeks

53

This is the Final stages of fetal development in rapid growth of fetus

Uterus gets bigger because fetus is bigger

Shortness of breath, urinary continents, varicose vein, hemorrhoids, increase blood pressure, heartburn, stomach disturbances

3rd trimester

54

What 6 organ systems change in the mother during pregnancy?

Digestive system
Cardiovascular system
Respiratory system
Urinary system
Integumentary system
Reproductive system

55

This represents the end of pregnancy and is the process of giving birth to the baby

Parturition

56

This is expelling the infant from the uterus

Labor

57

What happens to the placenta right before labor is initiated

Estrogen levels are secreted from the placenta

and the high estrogen levels stimulate the uterus to prepare for a contraction which stimulates cells to increase oxytocin receptor production

58

What Can create false labor contractions? Called Braxton hicks contractions

The rising estrogen levels from the placenta

59

What are the three stages to labor?

Dilation stage
Expulsion stage
Placenta stage

60

This is the process of passing traits from parents to offspring

Heredity

61

What did the traits of heredity include?

Hair and Eye color, personality, height, diseases/conditions

62

The study of heredity

Genetics

63

Heredity and genetics revolves around our cells what?

DNA

64

These are specific sequences of nucleotides that provide instructions for cells to produce proteins called genes

DNA

65

these create traits in the body

Proteins

66

This is an organ is complete set of DNA

How many chromosomes does it have?

Genome

46

67

All human cells except for germ cells contain how many pairs of chromosomes?

23 each

68

These consist of long strands of tightly coiled DNA

Chromosomes

69

These are traits that each person inherits

They vary in size, ranging from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million

Genes

70

Chromosomes are divided into how many homologous pairs of chromosomes and how many pairs of sex chromosomes?

22

1

71

Each pair of chromosomes consist of inherited chromosomes from the mother and father. What are these chromosomes called?

Autosomes

72

In females these chromosomes are large and arm designated by the letter X

In males One chromosome is an an x and one is a smaller crowd was on designated by the Y

Sex chromosomes

73

The location of a specific gene on each chromosome is referred to as what?

Locus

74

How many copies of each gene are there?

2

75

Each chromosome copy will carry the same locus for each gene? True or false

True

76

These jeans will provide the instructions for specific traits that can be slightly different

Locus

77

You have two copies of the genes found on chromosomes one through what?

Both copies have the same what?

Do they have to be exactly the same ?

22

Locus

No

78

Different variations of the genes making them different such as curly or straight hair is referred to as what?

Alleles

79

These can be either dominant or recessive

Alleles

80

Straight hair is dominant or recessive ?

Dominant

(Heterozygous or homozygous)

81

If the alleles are different the person is said to be heterozygous or homozygous?

Heterozygous

82

The location of a specific gene on a chromosome is called it's what?

Locus

83

If a person has two alleles that are the same the person is said to be what? For that trait

Homozygous

84

When some one is paired with brown and blue eyes the trait is what?

Heterozygous

85

This is a diagram used to determine the odds or probability of a phenotype for particular gene that an offspring can inherent

Punnett squares

86

This is a change in a gene's nucleotide sequence

It leads to faulty protein production

A mutation

87

What can cause mutations?

Accidentally DNA replication, radiation, smoke, chemicals, and viruses

88

What happens when an allele is mutated?

It can be passed onto the offspring

89

A mutation is a genetic disorder true or false?

True

90

If the mutation occurs within the dominant allele it is called what?

It needs how many dominant alleles present?

Autosomal dominant inheritance

One

(More common)

91

If the mutation is within the recessive Allele it is called what?

What alleles does it need present?



Autosomal recessive inheritance

Need both recessive Alleles present