Lymphatic And Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lymphatic And Immune System Deck (69):
1

Lymphatic system is composed of what?

Lymph organs and tissues

2

What is the immune system composed of?

A collection of cells, barriers, proteins that live within the lymph organs and tissues

3

What are the functions of the lymphatic system?

Fluid recovery
Immunity
Lipid absorption

4

What are the lymphatic structures?

Lymph
Lymph vessels
Lymph nodes
Lymphatic tissues/organs/the spleen and tonsils

5

True or false?
The immune system is not a true organ system.

True

6

You Immune system used to be divided into first second and third lines of what?

Defenses

7

The immune system is also referred to as what defense mechanism?

Nonspecific and specific defense mechanism

8

The immune system is now commonly referred to as what two defenses?

Innate defenses and adaptive defenses

9

Functions of the lymphatic system include what?

Fluid recovery
Immunity
Lipid absorption

10

What are the lymphatic organs and tissues in the body?

Red bone marrow
Thymus
Tonsils
Spleen
Lymph nodes
Lymphatic vessels

11

What is lymph fluid?

It is the fluid found within lymph vessels

12

Capillaries lose a lot of overall what? due to the pressure within them?

Plasma volume

13

What reabsorbs the remaining fluid ,but not all?

Lymph vessels

14

How many lymph nodes are there?

Hundreds of them

15

Lymph nodes are found where?

Along the lymphatic vessels

16

Where are lymphatic nodes found in the body?

Neck, Axilla , chest,abdomen, groin, and popliteal regions

17

Lymph nodes we've what 2 functions?

Filteration
Active immune system

18

The immune system is composed of barriers, cells, and various proteins that help to provide immunity against what?

Against pathogens

19

Needs to function and response with the appropriate strength and quickness to pathogens

Immune system

20

The immune system is categorized into what two different defenses?

Nonspecific and specific immunity a.k.a. Innate and adaptive defenses

21

This categorys responses not dependent upon antigen exposure

Not antigen specific

Exposure to pathogen/antigen doesn't create immune immunologic memory

Immediate response

Non-specific (innate)

22

Response is dependent upon antigen exposure

antigen specific

Exposure to antigen creates immuno logical memory

The period of time between antigen exposure and response time

Specific a.k.a. adaptive

23

The nonspecific or Innate immunity is divided into what two divisions?

Surface barriers


Internal defenses

24

What are the surface barriers?

Skin and mucous membranes

25

What are the internal defenses?

Phagocytes
Antimicrobial proteins
Metro killer cells
Inflammation
Fever

26

What are the phagocytes?

Neutrophils and macrophages

27

What are the Anti-microbial proteins?

Interferons
Complement system

28

What are the natural killer cells?

Specialized WBCs : lymphocytes

29

Is inflammation classified as non-specific or specific immunity?

Non-specific

30

What is inflammation triggered by?

Infections and body trauma

Bacteria, fungi, viruses, chemicals, physical trauma

31

What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation?

Redness
Swelling
Heat
Pain

32

What are the benefits of inflammation? (The good of it )

It prevents the spread of pathogens to surround tissues

It alarms the adaptive immune system

It cleans up cellular debris and pathogen's

It initiates the repair process

33

What is the first step of inflammation response and stages?

Tissue injury - histamine is released

34

Second stage of inflammation response

Vasodilation-causes redness heat and pain

35

Third response to inflammation?

Increased vascular permeability

Chemotaxis and swelling

36

Fourth response to inflammation?

Recruitment of phagocytes
This is when cleanup and repair is initiated

37

Injured cells secrete chemicals that dilate blood vessels in the area called what?

Histamine

38

Blood rushes in (this is called what?) bringing necessary Leukocytes. Increase blood flow also helps flush out toxins and waste

Hyperemia

39

The same chemical that trigger vasodilation also causes the cells in the capillary walls to separate slightly.

Fluid and anti-bodies leak through the spaces and into the injured tissues

Fibrinogen that leaks into the areas forms of sticky clot that walls off the infected area helping to keep the infection from spreading

Neutrophils which have been drawn to the area by chemicals released from damage cells (chemotaxis) start to phagocytize the pathogen's.

They also secrete chemicals(cytokines) to someone other neutrophils and macro phages to the area

Macrophages not only destroy bacteria but also help clean up the area by engulfing damage cells and Dead neutrophils.

40

This is this is systemic response to a pathogen unlike inflammation which is localized

It is an abnormal high temperature of the body due to a systematic response to a pathogen infection

Fever

41

The increase of body temperature decreases the ability of what to grow in the body and reproduce?

Bacteria

42

A fever increases metabolism great which also speeds up the what process?

Repair

43

Valves of a lymph present what ensuring that limp moves steadily away from the tissue and toward the heart?

Backflow

44

This anchors that capillaries to surround cells which prevents the vessels from collapsing

Protein filaments

45

Fluid enters where?

Between the overlapping epithelial cells.

46

this is a complex immunity that is adaptable to defenses

It creates a memory of the specific type of pathogen for future exposure

And example is the chickenpox virus

Specific/adaptable immunity

47


What are three aspects to the specific immunity and what do they do?

Specific– Targets specific cells or pathogens
Systematic – not limited to initial infection site
Specific memory – creates a memory cell of the pathogen for future exposures

48

What are two types of specific immunity?

Cellular immunity (cell mediated)
Humoral immunity (antibody mediated)

49

Cellular immunity and Humoral immunity both create what cells against a specific pathogen?

Memory immune

50

Cellular and Humoral immunity both react to antigens found where? And create immune cells to attack specific antigens.

On the surface of cells

51

What is the recognize react and remember of the cellular immunity?

1.Cellular immunity recognizes a foreign antigen
2. Reacts by creating cells called cytotoxic T cells (destroys foreign antigens)
3. Remembers by creating a memory cell that will specifically seek out and destroy cells with that antigen on its surface

52

When does the immune process begin?

When a phagocyte ingests antigen

53

The phagocyte displays fragments of the antigen on its surface which alerts the immune system to the presence of a foreign antigen. When a T cell spots before an antigen what does it do?

It binds to it and then will remember this specific foreign antigen by creating memory cells for that specific antigen.

54

How many types of specific immunity are there?

2

55

Cellular immunity creates what cells that seek out and destroy other cells have a specific antigen in its surface

Cytotoxic T cells

56

Humoral immunity creates anti-bodies at seek out and bind to specific antigen which means ?

Tags it for destruction

57

Specific immunity can be gained through a number of different methods such as what?

Active and passive
Natural and artificial

58

This type of immunity occurs when the body produces antibodies are T cells after being exposed to a particular antigen.

If you become ill with the measles your body will produce antibodies for this virus making you immune to the infection in the future

Natural active immunity

59

This immunity results when the body makes T cells and antibodies against a disease as a result of a vaccination such as a tetanus are influenza

Artificial active immunity

60

This form of immunity results when a fetus acquires antibodies from the mother through the placenta or when a baby acquires them through breast-feeding

Natural passive immunity

61

This form of immunity involves obtaining serum from a person or animal that has produce anti-bodies against a certain pathogen and then injecting it into someone else. This is typically use in emergencies for treatment of rabies.

Artificial passive immunity

62

Three different classifications of immune dysfunction are what?

Auto immune

Immunodeficiency

Hypersensitivities

63

This is when the immune system cannot distinguish between self antigens and foreign antigens

They tag and destroy

Auto immune

64

What are some examples of autoimmununity

Rheumatoid arthritis, type one diabetes, multiple sclerosis

65

This can be a form of genetic condition or acquired from some disease, pathogen or drug

It impairs the function and/or production of the immune cells

Very susceptible to disease and infections

Immuno deficiency

66

What are some examples of immunodeficiency

HIV and AIDS, leukemia, chemotherapy

67

This is when the immune system is hyperactive and its overall response to an antigen that is normally harmless to the body

Common allergies to animals pollen mold and dust

It is the release of histamine from immune cells and related cells

Hypersensitivity

68

The treatment for hyper sensitivity is what?

Anti-histamine

69

What is a life-threatening hypersensitivity?

Causes massive release of histamine
Such as bees stings, severe food allergies

What reverses this effect?

Anaphylactic shock


Epinephrine