Flashcards in Lymphatic And Immune System Deck (69):
Lymphatic system is composed of what?
Lymph organs and tissues
What is the immune system composed of?
A collection of cells, barriers, proteins that live within the lymph organs and tissues
What are the functions of the lymphatic system?
What are the lymphatic structures?
Lymphatic tissues/organs/the spleen and tonsils
True or false?
The immune system is not a true organ system.
You Immune system used to be divided into first second and third lines of what?
The immune system is also referred to as what defense mechanism?
Nonspecific and specific defense mechanism
The immune system is now commonly referred to as what two defenses?
Innate defenses and adaptive defenses
Functions of the lymphatic system include what?
What are the lymphatic organs and tissues in the body?
Red bone marrow
What is lymph fluid?
It is the fluid found within lymph vessels
Capillaries lose a lot of overall what? due to the pressure within them?
What reabsorbs the remaining fluid ,but not all?
How many lymph nodes are there?
Hundreds of them
Lymph nodes are found where?
Along the lymphatic vessels
Where are lymphatic nodes found in the body?
Neck, Axilla , chest,abdomen, groin, and popliteal regions
Lymph nodes we've what 2 functions?
Active immune system
The immune system is composed of barriers, cells, and various proteins that help to provide immunity against what?
Needs to function and response with the appropriate strength and quickness to pathogens
The immune system is categorized into what two different defenses?
Nonspecific and specific immunity a.k.a. Innate and adaptive defenses
This categorys responses not dependent upon antigen exposure
Not antigen specific
Exposure to pathogen/antigen doesn't create immune immunologic memory
Response is dependent upon antigen exposure
Exposure to antigen creates immuno logical memory
The period of time between antigen exposure and response time
Specific a.k.a. adaptive
The nonspecific or Innate immunity is divided into what two divisions?
What are the surface barriers?
Skin and mucous membranes
What are the internal defenses?
Metro killer cells
What are the phagocytes?
Neutrophils and macrophages
What are the Anti-microbial proteins?
What are the natural killer cells?
Specialized WBCs : lymphocytes
Is inflammation classified as non-specific or specific immunity?
What is inflammation triggered by?
Infections and body trauma
Bacteria, fungi, viruses, chemicals, physical trauma
What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation?
What are the benefits of inflammation? (The good of it )
It prevents the spread of pathogens to surround tissues
It alarms the adaptive immune system
It cleans up cellular debris and pathogen's
It initiates the repair process
What is the first step of inflammation response and stages?
Tissue injury - histamine is released
Second stage of inflammation response
Vasodilation-causes redness heat and pain
Third response to inflammation?
Increased vascular permeability
Chemotaxis and swelling
Fourth response to inflammation?
Recruitment of phagocytes
This is when cleanup and repair is initiated
Injured cells secrete chemicals that dilate blood vessels in the area called what?
Blood rushes in (this is called what?) bringing necessary Leukocytes. Increase blood flow also helps flush out toxins and waste
The same chemical that trigger vasodilation also causes the cells in the capillary walls to separate slightly.
Fluid and anti-bodies leak through the spaces and into the injured tissues
Fibrinogen that leaks into the areas forms of sticky clot that walls off the infected area helping to keep the infection from spreading
Neutrophils which have been drawn to the area by chemicals released from damage cells (chemotaxis) start to phagocytize the pathogen's.
They also secrete chemicals(cytokines) to someone other neutrophils and macro phages to the area
Macrophages not only destroy bacteria but also help clean up the area by engulfing damage cells and Dead neutrophils.
This is this is systemic response to a pathogen unlike inflammation which is localized
It is an abnormal high temperature of the body due to a systematic response to a pathogen infection
The increase of body temperature decreases the ability of what to grow in the body and reproduce?
A fever increases metabolism great which also speeds up the what process?
Valves of a lymph present what ensuring that limp moves steadily away from the tissue and toward the heart?
This anchors that capillaries to surround cells which prevents the vessels from collapsing
Fluid enters where?
Between the overlapping epithelial cells.
this is a complex immunity that is adaptable to defenses
It creates a memory of the specific type of pathogen for future exposure
And example is the chickenpox virus
What are three aspects to the specific immunity and what do they do?
Specific– Targets specific cells or pathogens
Systematic – not limited to initial infection site
Specific memory – creates a memory cell of the pathogen for future exposures
What are two types of specific immunity?
Cellular immunity (cell mediated)
Humoral immunity (antibody mediated)
Cellular immunity and Humoral immunity both create what cells against a specific pathogen?
Cellular and Humoral immunity both react to antigens found where? And create immune cells to attack specific antigens.
On the surface of cells
What is the recognize react and remember of the cellular immunity?
1.Cellular immunity recognizes a foreign antigen
2. Reacts by creating cells called cytotoxic T cells (destroys foreign antigens)
3. Remembers by creating a memory cell that will specifically seek out and destroy cells with that antigen on its surface
When does the immune process begin?
When a phagocyte ingests antigen
The phagocyte displays fragments of the antigen on its surface which alerts the immune system to the presence of a foreign antigen. When a T cell spots before an antigen what does it do?
It binds to it and then will remember this specific foreign antigen by creating memory cells for that specific antigen.
How many types of specific immunity are there?
Cellular immunity creates what cells that seek out and destroy other cells have a specific antigen in its surface
Cytotoxic T cells
Humoral immunity creates anti-bodies at seek out and bind to specific antigen which means ?
Tags it for destruction
Specific immunity can be gained through a number of different methods such as what?
Active and passive
Natural and artificial
This type of immunity occurs when the body produces antibodies are T cells after being exposed to a particular antigen.
If you become ill with the measles your body will produce antibodies for this virus making you immune to the infection in the future
Natural active immunity
This immunity results when the body makes T cells and antibodies against a disease as a result of a vaccination such as a tetanus are influenza
Artificial active immunity
This form of immunity results when a fetus acquires antibodies from the mother through the placenta or when a baby acquires them through breast-feeding
Natural passive immunity
This form of immunity involves obtaining serum from a person or animal that has produce anti-bodies against a certain pathogen and then injecting it into someone else. This is typically use in emergencies for treatment of rabies.
Artificial passive immunity
Three different classifications of immune dysfunction are what?
This is when the immune system cannot distinguish between self antigens and foreign antigens
They tag and destroy
What are some examples of autoimmununity
Rheumatoid arthritis, type one diabetes, multiple sclerosis
This can be a form of genetic condition or acquired from some disease, pathogen or drug
It impairs the function and/or production of the immune cells
Very susceptible to disease and infections
What are some examples of immunodeficiency
HIV and AIDS, leukemia, chemotherapy
This is when the immune system is hyperactive and its overall response to an antigen that is normally harmless to the body
Common allergies to animals pollen mold and dust
It is the release of histamine from immune cells and related cells
The treatment for hyper sensitivity is what?