Flashcards in Reproductive System Test 5 Deck (105):
Male and female reproductive systems are inactive until when?
The reproductive organs consist of what organs?
Secondary sex organs
What are the male gonads?
What are the female gonads?
What do gonads produce in the body?
Gametes and sex hormones
What are gametes?
(that are single chromosomes ) haploid
What do male gonads ( testes ) produce?
Sperm and Testosterone
Female gonads a.k.a. ovaries produce what?
Estrogen and progesterone
Male and female reproductive system have what two common goals?
To produce offspring
To produce sex hormones that regulate bodily functions
Three male reproductive system functions?
1. Produces sperm a.k.a. gametes
2. Deliver Sperm to female reproductive system
3. Produce testosterone
Five functions of the female reproductive system?
1. Produce eggs
2. Produce estrogen
3. Protect and store the fetus
4. Deliver the fetus
5. Provide nutrients to offspring
What is the males primary sex organ?
What is the males accessory sex organs?
Male duct system
What is the Males accessory glands?
They help form semen and help sperm survive in the females body
Each male has how many testicles located on their scrotum ?
What is the scrotum covered by?
What divides the two testes
And helps prevent any infection from spreading from one testicle to the other
What suspends the testes?
How many muscles are there that help support the testes?
Extending from the abdomen to each testicle is a muscle called what?
The spermatic cord contains what inside of it?
The sperm duct, blood , vessels, and nerves
To testes lay in a sack of tissue called what?
This muscle surrounds the spermatic cord.
In cold weather it contracts to bring the testicles closer to the body for warmth
Each testicle is divided into how many lobules?
Each lobule contains about 1 to 4 coiled tubes called what?
This is where the sperm cells are produced?
Within the seminiferous tubules
What cells help produce sperm they supply nutrients, and removing waste.
Where does testosterone production occur?
Outside the seminiferous tubules
What cells assist in making testosterone?
Leydig cells (interstitial cells)
These vessels provide a location in which sperm partially mature
This moves in mature sperm away from the testis to the epididymis ?
Sperm is stored in the tale of this, ? where they remain fertile for how many days? After that they are ejaculated and aging sperm disintegrates
40 to 60 days
When sperm leave the tale of the epididymis they pass into the what?
The vas deferens travels up the spermatic cord, through the inguinal canal and into the what?
The vas deferens ends ends by joining the seminal vehicle and out of the what?
These are the series of tubes that sperm follow to be expelled out of the body ?
This carries the sperm into the pelvic cavity and connects to the ejaculatory duct
Ejaculatory duct passes through the prostate gland and conects to the what?
During an orgasm, the sperm will do what?
Ejaculate from the penis through the urethra
This is part of the males Accessory gland that is yellowish fluid that contains fructose
60% of semen volume
This is the accessory gland that is milky White secretion that contains nutrients for the sperm and helps sperm motility
30% of the semen volume
This is the accessory gland that produces clear fluid for lubrication
Neutralizes the acidity of urine in the urethra that could harm the sperm
The enlarged tip off the shaft of the penis is called what?
What forms around the glands of the penis?
Foreskin or prepuce
What is circumcision?
When the foreskin is surgically removed
This is a spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle that is spongy with open spaces. It runs through the entire length of shaft of the penis
What happens to erectile tissue's during sexual arousal?
They fill up with blood which creates an erection
Two larger cylinders of tissue are called what?
Smaller cylinder of tissue is called what ? which encircles the urethra
Step 1: What do sperm cells begin as?
Step 2: Spermatogonia divide by mitosis and produce what ?
Two daughter cells
Step3:The daughter cells then differentiate into slightly larger cells called what?
Step4: through Meosis The primary spermocytes create what? With how many chromosomes?
Secondary spermatocytes with 23 (half) chromosomes
Step 5: each secondary spermatocytocytes divides again to form what?
Spermatids differentiate to form heads and tails and eventually transform into mature what? How many chromosomes?
Which part of the sperm contains the nucleus?
What covers the head of the sperm which contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg during fertilization
Which part of the sperm contains the mitochondria that supply the sperm with the energy it needs to reach the female reproductive tract
The middle piece
Part of sperm: This is a flagellum which has beating, whip like movements, that propel the sperm forward
This is the propulsion of semen from the males reproductive system
What percent of sperm is actually ejaculated during an orgasm?
The female reproductive system consists of what four internal genitalia?
The female reproductive system consists of what three external genitalia?
This is the primary sex organ of the female reproductive system
It is responsible for the reproduction of eggs, sex hormones, estrogen
Where are both ovaries located
In the lower abdominal cavity slightly to the side and below the navel
The ovaries contain sac like structures call what?
Each ovarian follicle contains an immature egg that is surrounded by what cells?
Immature egg is called a what?
Connects the ovary to the uterus
Ovulated eggs are drawn up into this , fertilization of the ovum will occur
Consists of the isthmus, ampulla, infundibulum with the fimbriae
This is the portion of the Fallopian tube closest to the uterus
Middle portion of Fallopian tube .
Egg fertilization site
Funnel shaped end of Fallopian tube
Does not attach directly to the ovary
Finger like extensions that fan over the ovary
The curved upper portion of the uterus
The body is what region of the uterus?
The lower end is caked what?
A passageway through the cervix
A muscular tube about 3 inches long
Serves as a receptacle for the penis and sperm, route for discharge of blood , and passageway for birth of baby
Lower end of the vagina that contains ridges
Helps stimulate the penis during intercourse and expansion during childbirth
A fold in the vagina that covers the enterance to the vagina
It ruptures after first intercourse
This is located in the pelvis and is higher than the rectum and behind and above the bladder
Hollow and contains 3 layers (thickest smooth muscle)
The uterus is divided into what 3 regions ?
What is the functions of the uterus?
Allow implantation, retain and nourish a fertilized egg
Changes occur to the what? Inner layer during the menstrual cycle
The wall of the uterus is composed of what three layers?
Thin walled tube that is about 4 inches long
Commonly called birth canal
Extends from the cervix to the exterior of the body
What is the function of the vagina
To receive the penis and sperm during sexual intercourse and to allow for discharge
Reproductive structures that lie externally in the vagina
Events associated with the uterine lining once a month unless fertilization and implantation occurs
What gland control the ovarian and menstrual cycles?
Anterior Pituitary gland
What hormone does the hypothalamus secrete?
What hormone does the anterior pituitary gland release?
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
FSH both bind to ovaries and affects normal function of the uterus
True or false?
What events occur in the ovaries during the ovarian cycle?
Follicle development, Ovulation, and corpus luteum development
Ovarian cycle consists of what to phases?
How long does the follicular phase last?
What happens ?
Last from day 1-14
Dominant follicle matures in secretes large amounts of estrogen
During the follicular phase -ovulation occurs on what day?
What days does the luteal phase last from?
Activity of the corpus luteum
What is the inner lining of the uterine cycle called?
What happens to the inner lining of the uterine if possibilities of fertilization of the egg and implantation would occur?
Becomes lush and thick
What happens to the inner lining of the uterine if fertilization does not occur?
It is slouched off and release from the body
The changes that occurred during the uterine cycle are coordinated with the changes that are occurring in the what?