Reproductive System Test 5 Flashcards Preview

Function And Structure > Reproductive System Test 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproductive System Test 5 Deck (105):
1

Male and female reproductive systems are inactive until when?

Until puberty

2

The reproductive organs consist of what organs?

Gonads &
Secondary sex organs

3

What are the male gonads?

Testes

4

What are the female gonads?

Ovaries

5

What do gonads produce in the body?

Gametes and sex hormones

6

What are gametes?

Sex cells

(that are single chromosomes ) haploid

7

What do male gonads ( testes ) produce?

Sperm and Testosterone

8

Female gonads a.k.a. ovaries produce what?

Estrogen and progesterone

9

Male and female reproductive system have what two common goals?

To produce offspring

To produce sex hormones that regulate bodily functions

10

Three male reproductive system functions?

1. Produces sperm a.k.a. gametes
2. Deliver Sperm to female reproductive system
3. Produce testosterone

11

Five functions of the female reproductive system?

1. Produce eggs
2. Produce estrogen
3. Protect and store the fetus
4. Deliver the fetus
5. Provide nutrients to offspring

12

What is the males primary sex organ?

Testes

13

What is the males accessory sex organs?

Scrotum
Male duct system
Penis

14

What is the Males accessory glands?

They help form semen and help sperm survive in the females body

Prostate gland
Seminal vesicles
Bulbourethral glands

15

Each male has how many testicles located on their scrotum ?

Two

16

What is the scrotum covered by?

Albuginea

17

What divides the two testes

And helps prevent any infection from spreading from one testicle to the other

Medium septum

18

What suspends the testes?

Spermatic cord

19

How many muscles are there that help support the testes?

Two

20

Extending from the abdomen to each testicle is a muscle called what?

Spermatic cord

21

The spermatic cord contains what inside of it?

The sperm duct, blood , vessels, and nerves

22

To testes lay in a sack of tissue called what?

Scrotum

23

This muscle surrounds the spermatic cord.

In cold weather it contracts to bring the testicles closer to the body for warmth

Cremaster muscle

24

Each testicle is divided into how many lobules?

250

25

Each lobule contains about 1 to 4 coiled tubes called what?

Seminiferous

26

This is where the sperm cells are produced?

Within the seminiferous tubules

27

What cells help produce sperm they supply nutrients, and removing waste.

Sertoli cells

28

Where does testosterone production occur?

Outside the seminiferous tubules

29

What cells assist in making testosterone?

Leydig cells (interstitial cells)

30

These vessels provide a location in which sperm partially mature

Rete testis

31

This moves in mature sperm away from the testis to the epididymis ?

Efferent ductules

32

Sperm is stored in the tale of this, ? where they remain fertile for how many days? After that they are ejaculated and aging sperm disintegrates

Epididymis

40 to 60 days

33

When sperm leave the tale of the epididymis they pass into the what?

Vas deferens

34

The vas deferens travels up the spermatic cord, through the inguinal canal and into the what?

Bladder wall

35

The vas deferens ends ends by joining the seminal vehicle and out of the what?

Ejaculatory duct

36

These are the series of tubes that sperm follow to be expelled out of the body ?

Epidiymis
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct
Urethra

37

This carries the sperm into the pelvic cavity and connects to the ejaculatory duct

Vas deferens

38

Ejaculatory duct passes through the prostate gland and conects to the what?

Urethra

39

During an orgasm, the sperm will do what?

Ejaculate from the penis through the urethra

40

This is part of the males Accessory gland that is yellowish fluid that contains fructose

60% of semen volume

Seminal vesicles

41

This is the accessory gland that is milky White secretion that contains nutrients for the sperm and helps sperm motility

30% of the semen volume

Prostate gland

42

This is the accessory gland that produces clear fluid for lubrication

Neutralizes the acidity of urine in the urethra that could harm the sperm

Bulbourethral glands

43

The enlarged tip off the shaft of the penis is called what?

Glans penis

44

What forms around the glands of the penis?

Foreskin or prepuce

45

What is circumcision?

When the foreskin is surgically removed

46

This is a spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle that is spongy with open spaces. It runs through the entire length of shaft of the penis

Erectile tissue's

47

What happens to erectile tissue's during sexual arousal?

They fill up with blood which creates an erection

48

Two larger cylinders of tissue are called what?

Corpus cavernous

49

Smaller cylinder of tissue is called what ? which encircles the urethra

Corpus spongiosum

50

Step 1: What do sperm cells begin as?

Spermatogonia

51

Step 2: Spermatogonia divide by mitosis and produce what ?

Two daughter cells

52

Step3:The daughter cells then differentiate into slightly larger cells called what?

Primary spermatocytes

53

Step4: through Meosis The primary spermocytes create what? With how many chromosomes?

Secondary spermatocytes with 23 (half) chromosomes

54

Step 5: each secondary spermatocytocytes divides again to form what?

Spermatids

55

Spermatids differentiate to form heads and tails and eventually transform into mature what? How many chromosomes?

Spermatozoa

23

56

Which part of the sperm contains the nucleus?

The head

57

What covers the head of the sperm which contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg during fertilization

Acrosome

58

Which part of the sperm contains the mitochondria that supply the sperm with the energy it needs to reach the female reproductive tract

The middle piece

59

Part of sperm: This is a flagellum which has beating, whip like movements, that propel the sperm forward

The tail

60

This is the propulsion of semen from the males reproductive system

Ejaculation

61

What percent of sperm is actually ejaculated during an orgasm?

10%

62

The female reproductive system consists of what four internal genitalia?

Ovaries
Ovarian tubes
Uterus
Vagina

63

The female reproductive system consists of what three external genitalia?

Clitoris
Labia majora
Labia minora

64

This is the primary sex organ of the female reproductive system

It is responsible for the reproduction of eggs, sex hormones, estrogen

Ovaries

65

Where are both ovaries located

In the lower abdominal cavity slightly to the side and below the navel

66

The ovaries contain sac like structures call what?

Ovarian follicles

67

Each ovarian follicle contains an immature egg that is surrounded by what cells?

Granulosa cells

68

Immature egg is called a what?

Oocyte

69

Connects the ovary to the uterus

Ovulated eggs are drawn up into this , fertilization of the ovum will occur

Uterine tubes

70

Consists of the isthmus, ampulla, infundibulum with the fimbriae

Uterine tubes

71

This is the portion of the Fallopian tube closest to the uterus

Isthmus

72

Middle portion of Fallopian tube .

Egg fertilization site

Ampulla

73

Funnel shaped end of Fallopian tube

Does not attach directly to the ovary

Infundibulum

74

Finger like extensions that fan over the ovary

Fimbriae

75

The curved upper portion of the uterus

Fundus

76

The body is what region of the uterus?

Central region

77

The lower end is caked what?

Cervix

78

A passageway through the cervix

Cervical canal

79

A muscular tube about 3 inches long

Serves as a receptacle for the penis and sperm, route for discharge of blood , and passageway for birth of baby

Vagina

80

Lower end of the vagina that contains ridges

Helps stimulate the penis during intercourse and expansion during childbirth

Vagina rugae

81

A fold in the vagina that covers the enterance to the vagina

It ruptures after first intercourse

Hymen

82

This is located in the pelvis and is higher than the rectum and behind and above the bladder

Hollow and contains 3 layers (thickest smooth muscle)

Uterus

83

The uterus is divided into what 3 regions ?

Fundus
Body
Cervix

84

What is the functions of the uterus?

Allow implantation, retain and nourish a fertilized egg

85

Changes occur to the what? Inner layer during the menstrual cycle

Uterine

86

The wall of the uterus is composed of what three layers?

Perimetrium
Myomentrium
Endometrium

87

Thin walled tube that is about 4 inches long

Commonly called birth canal

Vagina

88

Extends from the cervix to the exterior of the body

Vagina

89

What is the function of the vagina

To receive the penis and sperm during sexual intercourse and to allow for discharge

90

Reproductive structures that lie externally in the vagina

Mons pubis
Labia
Clitoris
Vestibule structures

91

Events associated with the uterine lining once a month unless fertilization and implantation occurs

Menstrual cycle

92

What gland control the ovarian and menstrual cycles?

Hypothalamus gland
Anterior Pituitary gland

93

What hormone does the hypothalamus secrete?

Gonadotrophic

94

What hormone does the anterior pituitary gland release?

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)

95

LH &
FSH both bind to ovaries and affects normal function of the uterus

True or false?

True

96

What events occur in the ovaries during the ovarian cycle?

Follicle development, Ovulation, and corpus luteum development

97

Ovarian cycle consists of what to phases?

Follicular phase

Luteal phase

98

How long does the follicular phase last?

What happens ?

Last from day 1-14

Dominant follicle matures in secretes large amounts of estrogen

99

During the follicular phase -ovulation occurs on what day?

Day 14

100

What days does the luteal phase last from?

What happens?

Day 14-28

Activity of the corpus luteum

101

What is the inner lining of the uterine cycle called?

Endomentrium

102

What happens to the inner lining of the uterine if possibilities of fertilization of the egg and implantation would occur?

Becomes lush and thick

103

What happens to the inner lining of the uterine if fertilization does not occur?

It is slouched off and release from the body

104

The changes that occurred during the uterine cycle are coordinated with the changes that are occurring in the what?

Ovarian cycle

105

What are the four phases of the uterine cycle?

Menstrual phase
Proliferative phase
Secretory phase
Premenstrual phase