Taking food into mouth
Release of water, acid, buffers, and enzymes into lumen of GI tract
Churning and movement of food through GI tract
Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
Passage of digested products from GI tract into blood and lymph
Elimination of feces from GI tract
Tube open from mouth to anus for transit of food.
esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum
Not part of GI tract, but contribute to food processing.
Accessory structures include the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
Food in the stomach mixed with stomach acids
formed by cheeks, hard & soft palate, and tongue
Skeletal muscle, makes floor of oral cavity.
Upper and lateral surfaces have papillae- some tastebuds
Skeletal muscle, moistens and warms air. Consists of nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
Collapsible, muscular tube. Connects Pharynx to stomach
Secrets gastrin into blood, secretes HCl (kills bacteria and denatures proteins, also secretes pepsin.
Secrets HCl and intrinsic factor
Secretes pepsinogen and gastric lipase
Adapted for mechanical digestion.
Children=20 teeth named by Letter
Old Children-Adults=32 teeth named by number
Produces enzymes that digest carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids AND sodium bicarbonate which buffers stomach acid
makes bile, important in the emulsification of fats
stores bile until it is needed. Delivers bile via common bile duct
Catabolized old RBCs from Liver and Gallbladder
Bile Salt Synthesis
Emulsification and absorption of lipids in liver and gallbladder
Majority of absorption and digestion.
Has circular folds to increase surface area
Brush Border Enzymes
On surface of microvili, break down food products
Starch substrate. Makes di and trisaccharaides
Triglyceride substrates. Makes fatty acids and diglycerides
Protease: Protein substrate. Makes Peptides
Trigylceride substrate. Makes fatty acids AND monoglycerides
Protease: In pancreas- protein substrate. Makes peptides.
Haustral churning (sac churning) absorption of vitamins, ions, amino acids, and H2O
Distension reaches a certain point and the walls of the haustra contract to squeeze contents onward
External vs Internal Anal Sphinchter
External = voluntary
breaksdown undigested carbs, proteins, and amino acids to be expelled into stool
Lubricates. Water absorption and solutes
Helps in emulsification and absorption of lipids
Tissues that attach to intestines. Helps with fat storage.