Anchor renal cortex
Filtrate (especially glucose, ions, water, and amino acids) are reabsorbed by active AND passive processes back to blood. Selective
Manages pH and rids body of toxic and foreign substances. Selective
Inhibits diuresis (urine output) by creating permeable membrane
“urination” stretch receptors trigger visceral reflex, detrusor muscle contracts
fine-tunes reabsorption of rest of Na+
-and reduces K+ concentrations in blood
Small trace amounts in urine- considered absent in urine. Filters through Bowman’s Capsule
Increased output of glucose in urine. Could be diabetes mellitus
Blood in urine
Hematuria- means inflammation of urinary organs or stones
Usually not in urine b/c particles too large to pass thru pores in capillary walls.
If present, Albuminuria= increased permeability in glomerular membrane (damage to)
Not in blood normally. If in urine=pyuria=> pus and infection in kidney or other urinary organ.
Appear in urine in small amounts.
High amounts = ketonuria => diabetes mellitus, starvation, or too little intake of carbs
Not in body.
If it body means infection like a UTI
Normal to have some in urine (from bilirubin which is from liver catalyzing dead RBC). Too much => liver disease: hepatitis or cirrhosis
pH of urine
4.5-8.0 average = 6. Depends on diet.
High protein diet= more acidic
High vegetable diet= more alkaline
Ratio b/w weight of volume to weight of equal volume of distilled water (water SG =1.000)
SG of urine depends on concentration. Increase concentration = higher SG