Flashcards in Directing Deck (86):
What are some of the features of directing?
It initiates action, it's pervasive, it's continues. Directing flows from top to bottom.
How does directing initiate action?
Directing is a function of management just like planning, organizing and staffing. But while other functions prepare a setting for action, directing initiates action in the organization.
Why do you think directing is a continues activity?
Directing takes place throughout the life of the organization. It doesn't matter who is the manager is he/she still needs to perform this function.
How does directing take place in every level of management(pervasive)?
Every manager from top level to lower level needs to perform directing. Directing takes place wherever there is a superior-subordinate relationship.
Why do say directing flow from top to bottom?
Directing starts from the top level of management and it flows down. A person can only direct his subordinate, not his superior. So directing flow downward along the organizational hierarchy. Every manager directs his immediate subordinate and takes direction from his superior.
What do managers do by directing?
They tell their subordinates what they should do, when they should do it and how they should do it. And makes sure that their instructions are followed properly.
What are the importance of directing?
It helps achieve goals. It integrates employee effort. It guides employee to realize their potential. It helps bring in change smoothly. It brings stability and balance to the firm as it fosters cooperation.
It is the process of instructing, guiding, counseling, motivating and leading people in the organization to achieve its objectives
How does directing help achieve goals?
Directing initiate action by people in the firm towards achieving the goal.
How is integrating employee effort important to the firm?
Directing integrates employee efforts in the firm, this way it is made sure that all the individual efforts contribute to increasing performance and therefore ensures that all individuals work for organizational goals.
How does directing help employees realize their potential
By motivating them and providing them effective leadership. A good leader identifies the potential in employees and helps them achieve that.
How does directing help bring in new changes smoothly?
Generally people have a tendency to resist change. Effective directing through communication, motivation and leadership helps reduce this resistances.
How does directing bring stability in the organization?
Directing foster cooperation and commitment of employees and department and by doing so it bring stability and balance in the organization.
Why do you need principles for directing?
Directing is a challenging and complex process. Therefore principles of directing guide managers in the process of directing.
What are the principles of directing?
Maximum contribution by individuals. Hormone of objectives. Unity in command. Appropriateness of directing techniques. Managerial communication. Use of informal organization. Leadership. Follow through.
What is the principle of Maximum Individual Contribution?
It's a principle of directing that emphasizes that the directing technique should help every individual contribute his maximum potential to achieve the organizational goals. It should bring out untapped energies of the employee.
What is the principle of Harmony in objective?
This principle of directing states that Directing should provide harmony between the employees objective and the firms objective by convincing the employee that his reward and work efficiency are complementary to each other.
What is Unity of Command?
It's a principle that states that one employee should receive instruction from only one superior. Any more than that and it will create confusion. This principle ensures effective directing.
What is the principle of Appropriateness of directing technique?
This is a principle of directing that states that appropriate motivational and leadership techniques should be used while directing the people based on subordinate needs.
What is Managerial Communications?
It's a principle of directing that states that effective communication between all the levels in the organization makes directing effective.
What is use of informal organization?
An informal organization exists within every formal otganization. This principle states that a manager should spot and make use of such organizations for effective directing.
What is the directing principle of leadership?
This principle states that while directing subordinates managers should exercise good leadership as it can influence them very positively without any dissatisfaction.
What is the directing principle of Follow Through?
This principle of directing states that just giving orders is not enough, managers should follow up the action by reviewing it constantly and find out if their their instruction are being followed or not.
What all activities are involved in directing and why are they done?
Directing involves guiding, coaching, instructing, motivating and leading people to achieve organizational goals.
What are the elements/functions of directing?
Supervision. Motivation. Leadership. Communication.
It is the process of of guiding the efforts of employees and other resources to achieve the desired goals of the firm.
What are the two aspects through which supervision is looked?
Firstly it's looked at as a element of directing. Secondly it's looked at as a function of Supervisors.
Why is the role of a supervisor vital to an organization?
Because supervisors are the only ones who have a direct relation with the worker. Other managers have no direct relation with bottom level workers.
What are importance of supervision/supervisors?
The maintain daily contact with workers. They are the only link between workers and the higher level management. They maintain group unity among workers. They make sure work is going according to target. They give on the job of training. They influence workers. They provide work feedback.
How is having a daily contact with workers an importance of supervision?
Supervisors can maintain a friendly relation with the worker. He can be a guide for them.
How is being a link between management and workers an importance of supervision?
As a link supervisors can convey management ideas to the workers and convey worker complaints to the higher level managers.
How does a supervisor maintain group unity among workers?
The Supervisor sorts out internal differences and among the workers and maintains harmony among workers.
How is provide on the job training an importance of supervision?
A skilled and knowledgeable Supervisor can build a team of efficient workers by providing them good on the job training.
How is being an influence on workers an importance of supervision?
A supervisor with good leadership skills can build employee morale and job satisfaction of employees.
How is providing work feed back a importance of supervision?
By analyzing the worker performance the supervisor can give them work feedback and by doing so he can suggest ways and means of improving work and working skill.
What makes people behave the way they do?
Motivation is the process of making subordinates act in a desired manner to achieve certain organizational goals.
What are the three main terms needed to be understood while talking about motivation?
Motive, Motivation, Motivator.
What is a motive?
It's the inner state that energizes, activates or moves and directs a person into action towards the goals.
How does a motive arise and how does it lead to action?
It arises out of needs of people. Realization of these needs causes restlessness and prompts the person into action to reduce this feeling.
What is motivation?
It's the process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals.
What are motivators?
It is the technique used to motivate people in an organization.
Give some examples of motivators and what do they do?
Motivators like pay, bonus, promotion, recognition etc. in the organization influence people to contribute their best.
What are the features of motivation?
Motivation is an internal feeling, produces goal directed behavior, is either positive or negative and it's a complex process as every person is different.
What makes you think motivation is internal process?
The thing that influences person into action is the urge, drive, desire, aspiration to satisfy oneself. And all these are internal feelings.
What makes motivation goal directed?
The objective of motivation is to achieve a goal. All the actions done by a motivated person is to satisfy a desire and that desire is the goal. So all the effort is directed to achieve that goal.
What makes motivation negative to positive?
Sometimes positive motivation like reward, promotion may motivate a person. But sometimes that doesn't work and negative motivation like punishment, chance of loosing the job may work. A person is either motivated by the desire to become better or by the will to survive.
What makes motivation a complex process?
The goal that motivates a person is different from individual to individual and so any one type of motivation may not work for different people, making motivation a complex process.
What is the process of motivation?
Having an Unsatisfied need. Which leads to tension. Which leads to a drive to satisfy that need. Which leads to a search behavior in the person. Which ultimately satisfies the need. And the tension reduces.
What does an Unsatisfied need create and how does it motivate a person?
An unsatisfied need creates a sense of deprivation that motivates a person to take action to fulfill his sense of deprivation.
What are the importance of motivation?
It helps improve performance of employees and organization. It helps change a negative/indifferent attitude of the employee. It reduces employee turnover. It reduces absenteeism. And it helps to bring in changes smoothly into the organization.
How does motivation improve performances of the organization and the employee?
Since proper motivation satisfies the desires and needs of the employee, they devote all their energy Into optimum performance and good motivation in the organization helps to achieve high level of performance.
How is changing the negative attitude of employees important to the firm?
With proper motivation the negative or indifferent attitude of employees can be turned into a positive attitude and this would help in achieving the firms goal.
How does motivation reduce employee turnover?
The main reason for employee turnover is lack of motivation. If the managers identify their need for motivation and offer proper incentives the turnover ratio can be reduced. This can reduce the cost of recruiting new employees.
How does motivation reduce absenteeism?
The main reasons for absenteeism are bad working conditions, lack of recognition, improper incentive etc. and through sound motivational system these deficiencies can be covered and work can be a source of pleasure. And employees would attend work more regularly.
How does motivation help induce changes smoothly?
Normally any change would have some resistance but if the manager can convince the employees that the change will bring additional reward to them then the change will be accepted more readily.
Who and when did he created the Need Hierarchy Theory?
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) created the Need Hierarchy Theory in the year of 1943.
What does the need hierarchical theory say?
It says that the human need is classified into five types. Starting from the most basic to the highest of self actualization.
How does the Need Hierarchical theory classify needs?
Physiological needs, Security needa, Recognition needs, Esteem needs and Self Actualization needs.
What are Physiological needs and how does the firm satisfy it?
They are the most basic needs of a person. They correspond to needs like hunger, shelter, sleep etc. and the organizations satisfy these needs by giving basic salary.
What are Security needs and how does the firm satisfy these need Some?
These are need protection from physical and emotional harm. The firm satisfies these needs by giving job security and stability in income.
What are the affiliation needs and how does the firm satisfy these needs?
These are needs of a person for affection, sense of belongingness, acceptance and friendship. The firm can satisfy this need by involving employees in decision making and by supporting informal organizations.
What are the Esteem needs and how does the firm satisfy these needs?
These are needs for recognition, respect and status. The firm satisfies these needs by giving promotion and giving employees responsibilities.
What are the Self Actualization needs and how does the firm satisfy these needs?
This is the highest kind of need. It refers to the drive to become what one is capable of becoming. It refers to the need of an individual to reach his full potential.
What are the assumption of Maslow's Need Hierarchy theory?
People's behavior is based on their needs. Peoples need are hierarchical in order(basic to higher). Satisfied needs can no longer motivate a person. A person only moves to higher level need only when the lower need is satisfied.
What are incentives?
These are measures which motivate a person to improve their performance in the organization.
What are financial incentives?
These are incentives which are in direct monetary form or are measures in monetary terms and serve to motivate people to improve their performance.
Give some Financial incentives?
Pay and allowance. Piece wages. Bonus. Profit share. Stock Options. Retirement Pension. Perquisites.
What are pay and allowances?
These are the most basic incentives. They comprise of basic salary and other basic allowances. These are the main things that keep employee motivated.
What are production linked wage systems?
These are Piece wage systems where the employee is paid extra if he performed better than his target. So employees tend to increase productivity to increase revenues.
What are Bonuses?
These are payments that are offered over and above the wages given to employees.
What is profit sharing and how is it an incentive?
Here a share of the profit is given to the employees. This way employees feel motivated to increase performance so that the profit would increase and the amount they get increase with it.
What is a stock option and how is it an incentive?
Here employees are offered the company shares at a lower price than the market price. This creates a sense of ownership in the employees and makes them contribute to the grow of the organization.
What are retirement benefits and how are they incentives?
These are retirement funds like pension and provident funds and give the employees a sense of security while they are working. This acts like an incentive while they are working.
What are perquisites and how are they incentives?
These are fringe benefits that are offered to the employees like car allowances, housing, Medicare etc. These are benefits over and above the salary and act like motivation.
What are Non-Financial incentives?
These are incentives that in the form of psychological and social factors which motivate people to better their performance.
Give some Non-Financial incentives?
Status. Organizational climate. Career advancement opportunities. Job Enrichment. Employee recognition programme. Job security. Employee Empoerment.
What is status and how is it an incentive?
It means the ranking position in the organization. It indicates the authority, responsibility, rewards and prestige of the employee. It satisfies their Esteem needs and thus acts like an incentive.
What is Organizational Climate and how is it an incentive?
It refers to characteristics that describe an organization. It is the thing that distinguishes an organization from another. These characteristics influences the way one looks at an organization. If the organizational climate is good it motivates employees to work better.
Give some characteristics of an organization?
Individual anotomy. Reward orientation and consideration for employees,
What do you mean by career advancement opportunities?
Every individual wants to grow and to a higher level. Managers should provide enough career advancement opportunities to employee that can improve their performance. Promotion acts like a tonic for encouraging employees to improve performance.
What is Job Enrichment and how is it an incentive?
It is concerned with designing jobs that include greater variety of content and require higher level of knowledge. This way the work itself becomes a source for motivation.
What is employee recognition Programme and how is it an incentive?
People have a needs for recognition for the work that do. Recognition means acknowledgement for the work that you do and when such recognition is given they feel motivated to do better.
What is Job Security and how is it an incentive?
Employees want their job to be secure they want a stability about the future income. When they are given this feeling of security they no longer worried and start working with more zeal.
What is employee participation and how is it an incentive?
It means involving employees in the decision making process regarding issues related to them. This gives the employees a sense of belongingness and motivates them to improve their performance as they help in making the decisions.