Flashcards in Directing Part 2 Deck (89):
What ability of an individual does leadership indicate?
It indicate s the ability of an individual to maintain good interpersonal relationships with followers and motivating them to achieve the organizational goal.
What are the features of leadership?
It indicates the ability of influencing others. It tries to bring changes to the behavior of others. It shows the relationship between leader and follower. It helps achieve common goals of an organization. It's a continues process.
What are the two main things that play an important role in leadership?
Leader and Follower.
What makes you say that the leader and follower are the main Objects in leadership?
It is said that a good followers make a person a good leader, by accepting his leadership.
What makes you think that leaders are vital to an organization?
A leader not only commits his followers to the organizational goals but also pools in needed resources, guides and motivates subordinates to reach the goals.
What are the importance of leadership?
A leader makes employees contribute positively. He helps them fulfill their needs. He helps introduce changes smoothly. He handles conflicts among followers and he helps create a smooth succession.
How does the leader make the employees contribute positively?
A leader greatly influences the behavior of his employees and makes them positively contribute their energies to achieve the organizational goals.
How does a leader fulfill the needs of employees?
By maintaining a personal relationship with them and by providing needed confidence, support and encouragement.
How does leadership create a congenial environment?
By satisfying the needs of the employees by giving the confidence, support and encouragement.
How does leadership help in introducing changes smoothly?
He overcomes the problem of resistance by persuading, clarifying and inspiring people to accept change wholeheartedly.
How does a leader handle conflicts?
By allowing employees to ventilate their feelings and disagreements but persuading them by giving suitable clarification.
How does a leader create a smooth succession ?
He provides training to his subordinates and build up a proper successor.
It the process of of influencing the behavior of people by making them strive voluntarily towards achievement of organizational goals.
What are the qualities of a good leader?
Good physical features. Knowledge. Integrity. Initiative. Communication skills. Motivation skills. Self confidence. Decisiveness. Good social skiils
How is physical feature a quality of a good leader?
Physical features form the physical personality of a person and these good features attract people. Good health also means that he has more endurance and can work hard which can inspire others to work hard too.
Why should a good leader have knowledge?
A knowledgeable and competent leader is able to instruct and direct his subordinates in a proper and correct way.
Why should a good leader have integrity?
A leader should have integrity and be honest so that he will be role model to others regarding ethics and values.
What do you mean when you say a good leader should have initiative?
A good leader should not wait for opportunities to come his way but should grab opportunities and use to the firms advantages.
Why should a good leader have communication skills?
Because he should have the capacity to clearly explain his ideas and make people understand his ideas
Why should a good leader have motivation skills?
He should be an effective motivator because he should be able to understand the needs of people and motivate them to achieve their goals.
Why should a good leader be self confident?
A leader should be confident even in bad times so that he can provide confidence to his employees even in those bad times.
How should a leader be decisive?
Once a leader is convinced of a fact he should be firm about it and should not change his opinion frequently. He should be stern.
Why should a good leader have social skills?
He should be sociable and friendly to all his followers that way he maintain a good human relationship with them.
Is it possible for an individual to posses all the qualities of a good leader?
On what basis are the leadership styles classified?
They are classified on the basic of use of authority.
What are the classifications for the styles of authority?
Authoritarian or Autocratic leader.
Democratic or Participative leader.
Laissez faire or Free-reign leade.
What is autocratic type of leadership?
Such a leader gives orders and expects them to be followed obediently. Communication is only one way and subordinates only act according to the order. This kind of leader is dogmatic i.e does not wish to be contradicted.
What is a dogmatic leader effective in doing?
This type is effective in getting productivity in many situations like factory conditions and in making quick decisions.
What is a democratic or participative leadership style?
This is a leadership style where the leader makes decisions only after consulting his subordinates. He encourages them to participate in decision making. Now a days people use this as they realize that employees perform best when they set their own goals.
What is a Laissez faire or free reign leadership style?
In this style the leader does not use power unless he thinks it is absolutely necessary. The followers are given a high degree of independence to formulate their own objectives and ways to achieve them. The work on their own task resolving issues themselves. The leader only plays a supportive role and supplies them with necessary information to reach the goal.
Which leadership style out of the three should be adopted?
Leaders may choose to exercise different combinations of these styles. Whatever the situation demands.
It is the process of transferring information from the sender to the receiver with the information being understood by receiver.
What makes you say that communication is vital for effective directing?
The amount of knowledge doesn't matter if the leader cannot communicate his ideas effectively. His directing abilities depend on his communication skills.
What are the elements of communication?
Sender. Message. Encoding. Media. Decoding. Receiver. Feedback. Noise.
Explain the process of communication?
It starts from the sender. The message is then encoded and sent across a media. Once the receiver gets the message he decodes it and sends the feedback
What are the importance of communication?
Basis for coordination. Helps in smooth working. Acts as a basis for decision making. Increases managerial effeciency. Promotes industrial peace. Establishes effective leadership. Boosts morale and motivation.
How is communication a basis for coordination?
It's acts as a basis for coordination. Such coordination is providing by explaining about the goals.
How does communication help in smooth operation?
It act like a lubricant. All interactions in the organization depends on communication. It helps coordinate human and physical elements of an organization into an efficient and active working unit that achieves the common objective.
How is communication a basis for decision making?
Communication provides relaxant information and only on the basis of this information can the right decision be taken.
How does communication increase managerial efficiency?
It is essential for quick and effective performance of the managerial function. Conveying targets, responsibilities and allocation of jobs is only possible with communication. It lubricates the entire organization and keeps work going efficiently.
How does communication promote industrial peace?
Efficient operation is only possible with industrial peace and this is achieved by mutual cooperation between managers and workers. And this cooperation can only be achieved by communication.
How does communication establish efficient leadership?
A leader should be able to influence subordinates and effective communication is the only way to achieve this. While influencing people leaders should posses this skill.
How does communication boost morale and motivations?
Communication enable managers to motivate, influence and satisfy subordinates. Good communication lets subordinates get adjusted to work and it improves human realation. Communication is also the key of a democratic style of management.
How is communication classified?
Formal and informal type of communication.
What is formal communication?
It is the flow of communication that goes through the official channel of communication designed in the organizational structure.
Between who all can official communication take place?
It can take place between superior and subordinate and between two employees at the same level.
How is formal communication further classified information?
Vertical and horizontal.
How can horizontal communication take place?
It can take place between one division and another.
What is a communication network?
It is the pattern through which communication flows in a organization.
Give some examples of formal communication networks.
Chain. Whell. Circular. Free flow. Inverted V.
How does communication flow in a chain network?
This networks exists between every superior and subordinate. Here communication flow from superior to subordinate or vise-versa.
How does communication flow in a wheel network?
Here all the subordinates under one superior communicate only through him. He acts like a hub for their communication.
How does communication flow in a circular network?
Here communication moves in a circle. Each person can communicate with the adjoining two persons. Communication is very slow in this network.
How does communication flow in a free flow network?
Here each person can communicate freely with others in the company. This type of communication is really fast.
How does communication flow in a inverted V network?
Here a subordinate is allowed to communicate with his superior and with his superior's superior. However only prescribed communication happens with his superior's superior.
What is informal communications?
This is the type of communication that happens within the organization but without flowing through the formal lines of communication.
Why is informal communication generally refers to as grapevine?
Because it spreads throughout the organization like wild fire but the source or origin of communication is unknown.
Why does a need for informal communication arise?
Humans are social beings. The need for such communication arises from the need of employees to share their views.
How should an intelligent manger use the grapevine system of communication?
He should make use of the pastime aspects of the informal channel and minimize the negative aspects of this channel.
What are the two features of grapevine system of communication?
It spreads rapidly and the origin of this kind of communication is impossible to find.
What are the kinds of grapevine communication networks and how does communication flow in them?
Single strand; communication flows in a sequence. Gossip network; communication flow in a non-selective bias. Probability network; a person communicates randomly with the other person. Cluster network; here a person only communicates with people he trusts.
What are communication barriers?
These are obstacles for communication. These prevent proper flow of communication.
What are the kinds of barriers to communication?
Semantic, Psychology, Organizational and Personnel barriers of communication.
What are Semantic barriers?
These barriers to communication that happen at the decoding or encoding part of the communication processs. These are barriers in the linguistic of meaning of words and sent news in communication.
What are the different kinds of semantic barriers?
Badly expressed messages. Symbols with different meanings. Faulty translation. Unclarified assumptions. Technical jargon. Body language and gesture decoding.
How is a badly expressed message a semantic barrier?
These are barriers where the sender is not able to properly express or convey the intended meaning to the receiver. These normally happen because of inadequate vocabulary, wrong usage of words or omission of needed words etc.
How are symbols with different meanings a semantic barrier?
A word might have several meanings. And when such words are used in communication the receiver is forced to perceive one such meaning of the word used. The meaning perceived might not be the meaning the sender intended.
How is a badly uncalrified assumption a semantic barrier?
Some communications may be based on some assumptions which may be subject to different interpretations. This normally happens when the sender gives vague instructions to the receiver.
How is a badly technical jargon a semantic barrier?
This normally happens when specialist communicate something to non speacialists. Some words familiar specialists may be not be familiar to non specialists and so the meaning of some words may not be understood.
How is a badly body language and gesture decoding a semantic barrier?
Every body movement and gesture convey something and they are very important in communication. If there is no match between what is said and the body language the message may be perceived wrongly.
What are psychological barriers?
These are barriers to communication which are caused by psychological and emotional factors such as state of Mind and emotional mind set.
How is premature evaluation a psychological barrier?
These are barriers which are caused by the evaluation of the message by the receiver before the sender completes his message. This may be caused by a pre-conceived notion or prejudice of communication.
How is lack of attention a psychological barrier?
These are barriers which are doused to the pre occupied mind of the receiver resulting in not listening to the message of the sender. The receiver might get bits of the message or not get the message at all.
How is loss by transmission and lack of retention a psychological barrier?
This is a barrier where if there are many people through which the communication is passed or if there many successive transmission of the message it may result in the loss of information and transmission of inaccurate information. The other problem is lack of retention. Here people can't retain information for too long if they inattentive etc.
How is distrust a psychological barrier?
This is the barrier that happens due to the lack of trust between the sender and receiver. This distrust will not allow them understand each other's message in the original sense.
What are organisational barriers?
These are barriers to communication which are caused by factors like organisational structure authority relations and regulations.
What are the organisational barriers of communication?
Organisational Policy. Rules and Regulations. Status. Complexity in organisational structure. Organisational facilities to communication.
How is organisational policy an organisational barrier?
This is a barrier where if the organisational policy is not explicitly or implicitly supportive of free flow information through out the organisation it may hamper effectiveness of communication.
How is rules and regulation an organisational barrier?
Rigid and cumbersome procedures may be a hurdle to communication. Communication through the scalar chain or any prescribed channel may result in delays.
How is status an organisational barrier?
A status of a superior may create a psychological barrier between him and his subordinate and this may hamper effectiveness of communication as the superior may not allow the subordinate to communicate freely.
How is complexity in the organisational structure an organisational barrier?
In a firm where there are many levels of management the communication may be delayed and the information might get distorted.
How is organisational facility an organisational barrier?
This is a barrier where if the organisation does not providing enough facilities for smooth, clear and timely communication it may hamper proper communication.
What are personal barriers of communication?
Theses are barriers to communication which are caused by personal factors of both sender and receiver. These factors influence affect effective communication.
What are the personal barriers to communication?
Fear of challenge to authority. Lack of confidence of superior on subordinate. Unwillingness to communicate. Lack of incentive.
How is fear of challenge of authority a personal barrier to communication?
If the superior feels that the communication of a particular information may adversely effect his authority he may not be willing to communicate and withhold that information.
How is the lack of confidence of superior on subordinate a personal barrier to communication?
If the superior does not have enough confidence in one subordinate he may not seek his opinion while making a decision and also may withhold some information from him.
How is unwillingness to communicate a personal barrier of communication?
Sometimes subordinates might not be prepared to communicate to a superior if they think it may not be in accord with their interest.
How is lack of proper incentive a barrier to communication?
If there is no motivation or incentive for subordinates to communicate, they may not take the initiative to communicate. This might be because of no recognition or rewards for suggestions that makes the subordinate withhold his useful suggestion.