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Are the principles of management similar to techniques of managements?

No, techniques of management are methods and procedures which have a step by step instruction to be taken to achieve a goal. While principles are just general guidelines to taking decisions or action while practicing those techniques.


Are the principles of management similar to values of managements?

No, values are connotation of moral. They are something which is acceptable and desirable. They are rules of human behavior in society. Principles are general rules are basic truths or guidelines for managers for the working of their business.


On the basis of what has the principles of management been developed and what are they subjected to?

They have been developed on the basis of observation, experimentation and personal experience of managers. Their application is very subjective to the managers behavior.


What are the nature of principles of management?

They are Universally applicable. They are just general guidelines. They are formed out of experiments and practice. They are flexible. They're mainly behavioral. They show a course and effect relation. They are contingent.


What do you mean by principles of management are Universally applicable?

They can Business Environment applied in any organization. Profit or non-profit, small or big. However the scope of their application is different form firm to firm.


What do you mean by principles of management are General guidelines?

They are not fixed instruction but just a guide to making decisions. They are not ready to use solutions but a guide to action. This is because in real business situations are very complex and dynamic.


What do you mean by principles of management are formed by practice and experimentation?

They are formed by experience and collective wisdom of managers and by experimentation.


What do you mean by principles of management are flexible?

That are not rigid prescription to action which have to Business Environment followed absolutely. They are flexible and can be modified by managers according to the situation.


What do you mean by principles of management are Mainly behavioral?

These principles aim at influencing human behavior. And so are mainly behavioral in nature. Moreover these help understand the relation between people and material resources in accomplishing the goals of the organization.


What do you mean by principles of management show a cause and effect relationship?

They intend to create a relationship between the cause and effect so that they can be used in similar situation. They tell us of the likely results and effect of a particular if a particular principle was applied in given situation.


Does the principles of management give you the exact cause and effect?

No, they are less than perfect as they deal with human behavior. But they assist managers in finding out the cause to effect to some extent and so are useful.


What do you mean by principles of management are contingent?

They application depends on the prevailing situation in a particular point of time. The application of these principles have to Business Environment changed as per requirements.


What derives the significance of management?

Their significance is derived from their utility and how they provide useful insights to managerial behavior and and influence managerial practice.


What are the significance of management?

Provide managers with insight into real life. Help in optimum utilization of resources and effective administration. Helps make scientific decisions. Helps meet changes in the environment. Helps in fulfilling social responsibility. Act as a basis for management training, education and research.


What do mean by principles of management help provide managers with useful insight into reality?

It provides managers with useful insight of the real word situation. And knowing these principles will add to their knowledge and ability and understanding of managerial situation and circumstances.


What do mean by principles of management help in optimum utilization of resources and effective administration.

Resources are both human and material and they should be used in way that it gives maximum output. Principles help managers foresee the cause and effect relationship of their decisions and thus overcome the wastage associated with a hit and trial method. It limits the scope of managerial discretion so the decisions are free from prejudice and bias.


What do mean by principles of management help in taking scientific decisions?

Decisions must Business Environment made based on facts. They should be realistic, timely and subjected to evaluation. The principles of management help in thoughtful decision making as they emphasis logic than blind faith. And decisions taken on the basis of these principles are free from bias and prejudice.


What do mean by principles of management help in meeting changes in the environment?

Principles of management are flexible in nature. They are modified and as such help managers in meeting the changing environment requirements.


What do mean by principles of management help in fulfilling social responsibilities?

The awareness of the people has increased and this forces companies to fulfill their social responsibilities. The theory of the principles of management have also evolved to serve this demand. And the interpretation of these principles have also evolves in response to these demands.


What do mean by principles of management help management training, education and research?

The principles of management are the core of management theory and this acts as a basis for training, educating and researching in the field of management.


Who was Fredrick Winslow Taylor?

He was an American engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency and made the scientific principles of management and is popularly known as the father of scientific management.


What is rule of thump?

Relying on ones personnel decision in attending to problems.


What is scientific management?

It means knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way.


What are the scientific principles of management?

Science, not rule of thumb. Harmony, not discord.
Cooperation, not individualism. Development of every personnel to his greatest efficiency and prosperity.


What is the principle of Science, nor rule of thumb?

Rule of thumb led to a hit and trial method of solving problems and this resulted in high wastage of resources. According to this principle managers should develop scientific methods that put the resources to maximum efficiency. Thus method can be developed through study and analysis and should replace rule of thump.


What is the principle of Harmony, not discord?

Earlier there was a class fight between workers and mangers. According to this principle there should Business Environment complete harmony between the managers and the workers and both should realize that each is important. And to achieve this Taylor called for a complete mental revolution.


What is mental revolution?

It is a change in the attitude of managers and workers towards one another. Managers and workers should think of each other as being a part of a big family. And should realize that the truth interests of the two are the same and that the interest one can't be achieved without achieving the interest of the other.


What is the principle of Cooperation, not individualism?

This principle is an extension of the principle of harmony, not discord. This principle states that there should Business Environment complete cooperation between workers and managers instead of individualism. Competition should Business Environment replaced with cooperation and both should realize they need each other.


What is the principle of developing every person to achieve their greatest efficiency and prosperity?

Industrial efficiency depends on the personnel competence of employees. According to this principle employees should be trained to reach their maximum efficiency and the best method should be adopted to increase efficiency. Efficient workers produce more and they earn more and this will ensure their greatest efficiency and prosperity for both workers and firm.


What are the different techniques of scientific management?

Functional formanship. Standardization and simplification of work. Differential Piece wage system.


What are management principles?

They are a broad set of guidelines that will help the managers in making decisions and behavior.


What is functional formanship?

Forman has a vital role in production. He is the pivot around whom revolves the entire production planning, implementation and control. And so a firm should concentrate on improving the skills of the Forman. But the skills required by a Forman are so vast that they can't be found I one person. So Taylor proposed dividing the functions of the Forman into 8 and giving the functions to 8 specialists who could handle their function really well.


How did functional foremanship help?

It divided the task of a foreman into eight specialized functions and each were handled by one foreman. The job of of one foreman was made simpler and that way he could make sure that function was implemented properly. And so all the functions of the foreman were implemented properly.


What's standardization?

It refers to the the process of setting standards for every business task and these standards have to adhered during production.


On what basis should the standards be set?

They should be based on the analysis of different aspects of the business like motion study, method study, fatigue study and time study.


What are the objectives of standardization?

Reduce a given line or product to fixed types, sizes, and characteristics. To establish interchange ability of manufactured parts and products. To establish standard of excellence and quality in material ; and standard of performance of men and material.


What is simplification all about?

It aims at eliminating superfluous variety, size and dimension in production. It aims at taking out unnecessary diversity of products. And so it results in saving cost of labour, machines and tools.


What is Method study?

The aim of this study is to find out the best and cheapest way of doing a job. And to determine that there are various parameters. All the activities from getting the raw material to delivering the finished goods to the costumer come under method study.


What is motion study?

It refers study of movements like lifting, putting, sitting etc. which are done in a typical job. This is done to eliminate any motion which is unnecessary so that less time will be taken to finish a job and that will increase the efficiency.


What all kinds of motion are found out in motion study?

Motions which are productive. Motions which are incidental(not a major part). And motions which are unproductive.


What is time study?

It helps find the standard time taken to do a well defined job. The standard time Is fixed for the whole task by taking several readings and these are done with an objective to determine the number of workers needed to be employed, frame suitable incentive schemes and determining the labour cost.


What is fatigue study?

A person is bound to feel tired if he does not take rest. Fatigue study tries to determine the amount and frequency of the rest interval needed in completing a job.


What is differential peace wage system?

Once the standards of performance were set up. The efficient and inefficient workers are found out based on these standards.Those who performed above the standards are rewarded for the extra units they produced and those who were below were payed less according to the number of units they fell short of.


What did Henry Fayol's principles explain?

His principles explained what amounts to a managers work and what principles should Business Environment followed in doing that work.


What are the 14 principles of General management?

Division of work. Authority and Responsibility. Discipline. Unity in Command. Unity in Direction. Subordination of individual interest to organizational interests. Remuneration of employees. Centralization and Decentralization. Scalar Chain. Order. Equity. Stability of personnel. Initiative. Espirit De Corps.


What is the principle of division of work?

According to this principle work is divided in small tasks and trained specialists are required to do the job. This will help produce more and better work with the same effort.


What is the principle of Authority and Responsibility?

Authority is right to give orders and obtain obedience. Responsibility is the obligation towards the duty. According to this principle there must be a balance between authority and responsibility. The firm should not give authority more than the responsibility (safeguard). But should give enough authority to fulfill the responsibility.


What is the principle of discipline?

Discipline is the obedience towards the organizational rules. According to this principle descipline requires a good superior at all levels, free and fair agreements and judicious application of penalties.


What is the principle of unity in command?

According to this principle one person should only be instructed by and responsible to one superior and not more than that. One subordinate should have only one superior. This reduces confusion and ambiguity.


What is the principle of unity in direction?

According to this principle all the units of the organization should be moving towards the same goal through coordinated and focused efforts. This ensures unity in action and coordination.


What is the principle of subordination of individual interests to general interests?

The interests of an organization should take priority over the interests of an individual. This is because the larger interests of the company are more important than the interests of the individual.


What is the principle of remuneration of employees?

According to this principle the employees should be paid fair wages which should give them at least a reasonable standard of living but at the same time it should be within the paying capacity of the company.


What is the principle of centralization and decentralization?

The concentration of decision making power is centralization and its dispersal is decentralization. According to this principle there is a need to balance subordinate involvement through decentralization and there retention of final authority through centralization. This balance will depend on the company


What is the principle of scalar chain?

The formal line of authority from highest to lowest ranks is known as scale chain. According to this principle every organization should have a chain of communication that runs from top to bottom and should be followed by everyone.


What is the exception to scalar chain?

Gang plank. This is a shorter rout of communication were two people in the same level can communicate without any delays.


What is the principle of order?

According to this principle people and material should Business Environment in appropriate places at appropriate times for maximum efficiency. It just means a place for energy thing and everything in its place. It ensures orderliness.


What Israel principle of equity?

According to this principle managers must treat all employees equally. Managers must be kindly and show justice to all employees. This ensures loyalty and devotion.


What is the principle of stability of personnel?

According to this principle employee turnover should Business Environment minimized to ensure organizational efficiency. Employees must be selected after rigorous process but once selected they should be kept for a minimum tenure and should be given enough time to show their skills. This will save the firm the cost of recruitment, selection and training.


What is the principle of initiative?

Initiative means taking the first step to do something with self motivation. According to this principle workers must be given the encouragement and freedom to develop and carry out their plans for improvements.


What is the principle of Espirit de corps?

According to this principle management should promote a team spirit of unity and harmony among employees. The management should do this especially in big firms otherwise it would be hard to achieve goals.