Flashcards in Diseases of Respiratory System - Pathology (16 & 17) Deck (36):
Trachea, main bronchi, segmental and smaller bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles
Gas exchange - lung acini (3-5 make lobule)
Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, sacs and alveoli
Histology - conduction airways
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar mucus secreting epithelium
Histology - alveoli
Mostly flat type 1 pneumocytes (gas exchange) and some type 2 pneumocytes (surfactant production)
Respiratory failure PaO2
Type 1 respiratory failure
Type 2 respiratory failure
PaCO2 >6.3 kPa (hypercapnia)
Signs and symptoms
Sputum, cough, stridor, wheeze, pleuritic pain, dyspnoea, cyanosis, clubbing, weight loss
Why weight loss?
Catabolic state with chronic inflammation/tumours
Decreased oxygenation of haemoglobin
Impaired alveolar gas exchange
Why pleuritic pain?
Distal airway obstruction
Proximal airway obstruction
Reflex response to irritation
What kind of sputum?
Mucoid, purulent or haemoptysis
Resisted opening of small airways - fluid
Narrowed small airways
Sound conduction through solid lung
Movement of inflamed visceral and parietal pleura
Lung consolidation or pleural effusion
Pneumothorax or emphysema
- Obstructive airways disease
- Interstitial lung diseases
- Vascular diseases
- Pleural diseases
- Occupational lung diseases
- Paediatric lung pathology
Interstitial lung diseases
Adult respiratory distress syndrome, fibrosing alveolitis, sarcoidosis
Pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension
Benign primary lung tumour
What are 90% malignant primary lung tumours?
Risk factors for lung carcinoma
Smoking (80%), asbestos, lung fibrosis (asbestosis/silicosis), radon, chromates, nickel, tar, hematite, arsenic, mustard gas
- Fibrous metal silicates
- Amphiboles (blue/crocidolite and brown/amosite)
- Serpentines (white/chrysotile)
- Asbestos bodies seen by light microscopy (fibres coated with mucopolysaccharide and ferric iron salts)
Which is most dangerous asbestos?
Which is least dangerous asbestos?
What do high levels of asbestos exposure lead to?
Pulmonary interstitial fibrosis/asbestosis
- Non-small cell carcinoma (squamous, adenocarcinoma, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, undifferentiated large cell carcinoma)
- Small cell carcinoma (neuroendocrine)
Carcinoid tumours (primary)
Low grade neuroendocrine epithelial tumours
Other primary malignant tumours
Lymphomas, sarcomas, carcinosarcomas