Diseases of Respiratory System - Pathology (16 & 17) Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Diseases of Respiratory System - Pathology (16 & 17) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diseases of Respiratory System - Pathology (16 & 17) Deck (36):
1

Conducting airways

Trachea, main bronchi, segmental and smaller bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles

2

Gas exchange - lung acini (3-5 make lobule)

Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, sacs and alveoli

3

Histology - conduction airways

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar mucus secreting epithelium

4

Histology - alveoli

Mostly flat type 1 pneumocytes (gas exchange) and some type 2 pneumocytes (surfactant production)

5

Respiratory failure PaO2

6

Type 1 respiratory failure

PaCO2

7

Type 2 respiratory failure

PaCO2 >6.3 kPa (hypercapnia)

8

Signs and symptoms

Sputum, cough, stridor, wheeze, pleuritic pain, dyspnoea, cyanosis, clubbing, weight loss

9

Why weight loss?

Catabolic state with chronic inflammation/tumours

10

Why cyanosis?

Decreased oxygenation of haemoglobin

11

Why dyspnoea?

Impaired alveolar gas exchange

12

Why pleuritic pain?

Pleural irritation

13

Why wheeze?

Distal airway obstruction

14

Why stridor?

Proximal airway obstruction

15

Why cough?

Reflex response to irritation

16

What kind of sputum?

Mucoid, purulent or haemoptysis

17

Crackles

Resisted opening of small airways - fluid

18

Wheeze

Narrowed small airways

19

Bronchial breathing

Sound conduction through solid lung

20

Pleural rub

Movement of inflamed visceral and parietal pleura

21

Dull percussion

Lung consolidation or pleural effusion

22

Hyperesonant percussion

Pneumothorax or emphysema

23

Lungs diseases

- Neoplasms
- Infections
- Obstructive airways disease
- Interstitial lung diseases
- Vascular diseases
- Pleural diseases
- Occupational lung diseases
- Paediatric lung pathology

24

Interstitial lung diseases

Adult respiratory distress syndrome, fibrosing alveolitis, sarcoidosis

25

Vascular diseases

Pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension

26

Benign primary lung tumour

Rare, adenochondroma

27

What are 90% malignant primary lung tumours?

Carcinoma

28

Risk factors for lung carcinoma

Smoking (80%), asbestos, lung fibrosis (asbestosis/silicosis), radon, chromates, nickel, tar, hematite, arsenic, mustard gas

29

Asbestos

- Fibrous metal silicates
- Amphiboles (blue/crocidolite and brown/amosite)
- Serpentines (white/chrysotile)
- Asbestos bodies seen by light microscopy (fibres coated with mucopolysaccharide and ferric iron salts)

30

Which is most dangerous asbestos?

Amphiboles (blue/crocidolite)

31

Which is least dangerous asbestos?

Serpentines (white/chrysotile)

32

What do high levels of asbestos exposure lead to?

Pulmonary interstitial fibrosis/asbestosis

33

Carcinoma (primary)

- Non-small cell carcinoma (squamous, adenocarcinoma, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, undifferentiated large cell carcinoma)
- Small cell carcinoma (neuroendocrine)

34

Carcinoid tumours (primary)

Low grade neuroendocrine epithelial tumours

35

Other primary malignant tumours

Lymphomas, sarcomas, carcinosarcomas

36

Secondary lung tumours

Most common lung from known primary, multiple bilateral nodules/solitary

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