Core Microbiology - Antivirals (3) Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Core Microbiology - Antivirals (3) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Core Microbiology - Antivirals (3) Deck (31):
1

Acute viral infection

RNA - doesn't survive long

2

Examples of acute viral infections

Influenza, measles, mumps, hep A

3

Chronic viral infection

DNA based, latent or persistent

4

Chronic latent virus examples

Herpes simplex, CMV

5

Chronic persistent virus examples

HIV, Hep B, Hep C

6

Virus structure

Nucleic acid core (DNA/RNA), protein (coat, enzymes), lipid envelope

7

Virus replication

1. Attaches to cell (receptor)
2. Cell entry
3. Virus uncoating
4. Early proteins produced (enzymes)
4. Replication
5. Late transcription/translation
6. Viral assembly
7. Virus release

8

Polymerases

1. DNA > DNA (eukaryotes, DNA virus)
2. DNA > RNA (eukaryotes, DNA virus)
3. RNA > RNA (RNA virus)
4. RNA > DNA (retrovirus, HBV)

9

Nucleotide

Base, ribose sugar, triphosphate

10

Azidothymidine (AZT)

Inhibits HIV replication (Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor)

11

NRTIs - pyrimidine analogues

1. Thymidine analogues - Zidovudine
2. Cytosine analogues - Lamivudine

12

NRTIs - Purine analogues

(Adenine and Guanidine) Abacavir, Tenofovir

13

HBV

Contains reverse transcriptase enzymes - Lamividine and Tenofovir

14

NNRTIs

Anti-retrovrius, Efavirenz, Nevirapine

15

Protease inhibitors

Atazanavir, Darunavir, Fospamprenavir, Lopinavir, Nelfinavir, Ritonavir, Saquinavir

16

Viruses use of proteases

Have their own to make them into enzymes and function normally

17

HIV protease

Aspartate

18

New HIV drugs

1. Fusion inhibitor
2. Integrase inhibitors
3. Chemokine receptor anatgonists

19

Fusion inhibitors

Mimic proteins that allow viruses to fuse with membrane (Enfuviritide)

20

Integrase inhibitors

Raltegravir

21

Chemokine receptor antagonists

Maraviroc (CCR-5) blocking helps prevent entry

22

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)

2 NRTIs+NNRTI/2 NRTIs + boosted PI

Started when CD4 falls, switch off virus replication, taken life long, suppression >10 years achieved

23

Problems with HAART

Liver toxicity and triglyceride problems (heart disease)

24

HIV cure

Suppressed on antivirals, CD4 lymphocytes destroyed by conditioning, stem cells, antiviral therapy stopped

25

Hep C virus

Interferons and Ribavirin, not have interferon free regimens >90% cure

26

Interferon problems

Depression, flu-like symptoms, not directly acting non-specific

27

Aciclovir

Nucleoside anaylogue, phosphorylated by HS thymidine kinase
(HSV and VZV)

28

Ganciclovir

CMV

29

Oseltamivir and Zanamavir

Neuraminidase inhibitor (Influenza)

30

Ribavirin

Hep C virus and RSV

31

Interferons

Hep C virus and Hep B virus

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