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Flashcards in Diuretics Deck (16):
1

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
Acetazolamide: uses

glaucoma
idiopathic intracranial HTN
altitude sickness
metabolic alkalosis

2

Altitude sickness treatment with acetazolamide

hypoxemia
leading to increased respiratory rate (blowing off CO2)
respiratory alkalosis

metabolic compensation enhanced by acetazolamide which helps you excrete carbonic acid

3

Acetazolamide side effects

metabolic acidosis
hypokalemia
nephrolithiasis

4

Sulfa drugs

acetazolamide
thiazides
loop diuretics

5

What's the only loop duiretic that is not a sulfa drug?

ethacrynic acid

6

When should you use mannitol, osmotic diuretic?

increased ICP (short term solution)
acute kidney injury
acute angle closure glaucoma

7

Mannitol adverse effects

dilutional hyponatremia initially
osmotic diureses, and relative hypernatremia
hyperosmolarity
pulmonary edema

Monitor serum sodium, serum osmolarity looking for hyperosmolarity

8

Loop diuretics

furosemide
bumetanide
torsemide
ethacrynic acid

CHF
Ascites
Pulmonary edema
Peripheral edema
Hypercalcemia (but be careful with hypercalciuria, in which case loop diuretics might cause more kidney stones)

9

Loop diuretic side effects

ototoxicity
hyperuricemia (don't give if gout)
hypokalemia (supplement potassium)
hypocalcemia

10

Thiazides

hydrochlorothiazide
metolazone
chlorthalidone

use for
HTN
early, mild CHF
hypercalciuria
nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

RTA

11

Thiazides- side effects

hypokalemia
hyponatremia
hyperuricemia
hypercalcemia

12

Potassium-sparing diuretics

potassium, "taKe a SEAT"

aldosterone antagonists:
Spironolactone
Epleronone

block sodium channels:
Amiloride
Triamterene

13

Aldosterone antagonists- when do we use them?

Hyperaldosteronism
CHF
Post- MI (especially epleronone)
Portal HTN (especially spironolactone and furosemide)

14

Spironolactone's anti-androgen effects can be used to treat...

acne
polycystic ovarian syndrome

15

Aldosterone antagonise side efefects

hyperkalemia
gynecomastia, menstrual irregularities (spironolactone)

16

When do we use triamterene and amiloride potassium-sparing diuretics?

HTN
Conserving K+ during diuresis
(combined with HCTZ)
Lithium- induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus