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Flashcards in Pediatrics Deck (141)
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1

At what point should an infant have regained her birthweight after initial weight loss?

What about at 4 months, 12 months, and 24 months?

2 weeks

double by 4 months
triples at 12 months
quaduples at 24 months

2

How much weight should a child gain per year?

from 2-13 years, weight gain is about 5 pounds per year

3

inadequate weight gain

poor food intake
chronic vomiting or diarrhea
malabsorption
neoplasm
congenital diseases

4

failure to thrive

weight

5

Complications of obesity

rapid growth
sleep apnea
HTN
SCFE
precocious puberty
increased incidence of skin infections
social dysfunction
earlier development of 2DM

6

Height, or birth length at 1 year, 4 years, 13 years

1 year: increased by 50%
4 years: double
13 years: triple
2-13year: 2 inches/year

7

Greater-than-normal height

familial tall stature
precocious puberty
gigantism
hyperthyroidism
klinefelter syndrome
Marfan syndrome
obesity

8

lower-than-normal height

familial short stature
neglect
constitutional growth delay
asthma
CF
TUrner
IBD
immunologic disease
growth hormone deficiency
hypothyroidism
glucocorticoid excess
skeletal dysplasia
neoplasm

9

Macrocephaly

Cerebral metabolic diseases:
-Tay-Sachs
-Maple syrup urine disease

Neurocutaneous syndromes
-neurofibromatosis
-tuberous sclerosis

Hydrocephalus
increased intracranial pressure
skeletal dysplasia
acromegaly
intracranial hemorrhage

10

Microcephaly

fetal toxin exposure- fetal alcohol syndrome

chromosomal trisomies
congenital infections
cranial anatomic abnormalities
metabolic disorders
neural tube defects

11

how to address growth defects

treat underlying disorder
intervention in abuse cases
parent education
thorough family history

12

developmental milestones during childhood: 2 months

social smile
lefts head 45 degrees
eyes follow object to midline
isn't talking but can coo

13

developmental milestones during childhood: 4 months

laughs
is aware of caregiver
localizes sound
lifts head to 90 degrees when on stomach
fine motor- can follow an object with eyes past midline

14

developmental milestones during childhood: 6 months

differentiates parents for others
stranger anxiety
grasps objects, or rakes objects toward self
attempts to feed self
babbles

15

developmental milestones during childhood: 9 months

interactive games
separation anxiety
crawling, pulls to stand

16

developmental milestones during childhood: 12 months

taking first steps
pincer grasp
makes 2-block tower
5-10 word vocabulary

17

developmental milestones during childhood: 18 months

parallel play
walks well
walks backward
tower of 4 blocks
can use a cup and spoon

18

developmental milestones during childhood: 2 years

dresses self with help
runs
climbs stairs
gender identity around 2-3 years old (around time of potty training)

6 block tower
50-75 words; 3-word sentences

19

developmental milestones during childhood: 3 years

magical thinking
climbs/descends stairs
makes a tower of 9 blocks
draws a circle

20

developmental milestones during childhood: 4 years

plays with others
hop on 2 foot
draws a line image
and a closed figure (triangle, square)
250 or more words

21

developmental milestones during childhood: 6 years

skips
can draw a stick figure person

22

When do infant reflexes disappear?

by 6 months

after this, suggestive of CNS abnormalities esp in context of
perinatal complications

23

rooting reflex

rubbing the cheek causes turning the cheek towards the stim

24

Tonic reflex

face turns, arm on face side extends and other arm flexes

25

placing reflex

rubbing dorsum of foot causes that foot to step up

26

Anticipatory guidance:
newborn to 1 week

sleep on back to prevent SIDS
"back to sleep" campaign

baby does not need to bath every day

27

Anticipatory guidance:
4-6 months

begin feeding solid foods

usually first food is iron- fortified cereal

28

Anticipatory guidance:
12 months

can introduce cow's milk
before 12 months, hemorrhage in the gut is more likely

29

When do kids start seeing the dentist?

2-3 yo
if cavities have begun, then go to the dentist with six months of first tooth eruption
unless there are risk factors (brushing less than once a day, caregivers with lots of cavities, etc.)

30

Anticipatory guidance:
2-3YO

can start seeing dentist