Flashcards in Obstetrics Deck (176)
Signs of pregnancy
Signs of early pregnancy
Goodell sign- softening of the cervix
Chadwick sign- dark- bluish red discoloration of the vaginal mucosa
Hegar and Ladin signs: softening of uterus
Chloasma: skin hyperpigmentation on the face, often in sun-exposed areas
Linea nigra: skin hyperpigmentation along the midling of the anterior abdominal wall
When does betaHCG become detectable in theurine? in the serum?
urine: 2 weeks after fertilization
serum 1 week after fertilization
when does a pregnancy show up on ultrasound?
when does fetal cardiac activity become perceptible on Doppler?
measured from 1st day of LMP
inaccurate if the cycle isn't 14 days
can be estimated with US
measured from fertilization
how old is the age of the embryo?
Naegele's rule for calculating due date
1st day of LMP
+ 7 days
+ 1 year
= expected date of delivery
G and P
G:# of pregnancies
P:# of births: 20 weeks
A:# of abortions
never been pregnant
never given birth
currently in 1st pregnancy
has had 1 birth
has had >2 births
age of viability
37 w 0 d - 41w 6 d
maternal physiology SU260
Basal metabolic rate increases 10-20%
plasma volume increases 30-50%, RBC volume increases 20-30%
systolic Ejection flow mumur
cardiac output inreases 30-50%
blood pressure decreases in early pregnancy- nadir at 24-26 weeks, return to prepregnancy levels by term
relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter - GERD
increased GFR- decreased BUN and Creatinine
increased procoagulation factors- hypercoagulable state
sensitive and specific diagnostic lab test for chronic pancreatitis
low fecal elastase
How many extra kcal does a woman need during pregnancy?
women need an extra 100-300kcal/day to meet increased metabolic needs (rate increases by 10-20%)
What is the recommended weight gain during pregnancy for someone who is Underweight (BMI
What is the recommended weight gain during pregnancy for someone who is normal weight (BMI
What is the recommended weight gain during pregnancy for someone who is overweight ((BMI 25-29.9)?
What is the recommended weight gain during pregnancy for someone who is obese (BMI>30)
What supplements should pregnant women take?
folic acid prevents NTD
extra if on antiseizure meds
avoid vitamin A in excess
what should pregnant women avoid eating?
deli meats (listeriosis)
fish high in mercury (CNS damage)
how big is the uterus during pregnancy?
8-10 wks- orange
10-12 wks- grapefruit
12 weeks- at the pubis
16 weeks- halfway
20 weeks- umbilicus
from 20-32 weeks the distance from the pubis approximates the age of the uterus
What should you do at every prenatal visit?
fetal movement (especially after 16weeks)
fetal presentation (in the 3rd trimester- cephalic or breech)