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Flashcards in DNA Viruses I Deck (100)
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1

What is the viral classification of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2)?

Enveloped DS DNA virus

2

HSV1 and HSV2 are forms of

TORCHeS Virus

3

HSV1 and 2 replicate in the

Nucleus

4

Double stranded and linear virus

HSV1 and HSV2

5

Has characteristic Cowdry bodies

HSV1 and HSV2

6

HSV1 and 2 are transmitted via

Sex and Saliva

7

Affects the upper half of the body

-Called "Lip herpes"

HSV1

8

HSV1 1st infects as

Gingiva infantis

9

What is a cardinal signal of HSV1?

Snake like ulcers and keratoconjuctivitis

10

Can result in temporal lobe encephalitis w/ bizarre behavior

HSV1

11

HSV1 is the most common cause of

Sporadic encephalitis

12

HSV1 lies latent in the

Trigeminal ganglia

13

HSV1 can cause dew drop like blisters on the fingers, this is called

Herpetic Whitlow

14

Shows erythema multiform forming target lesions on hands and feet that move inwardly

HSV1

15

Transmitted by any action in the genital regions

HSV2

16

Characterized by painful vesicular lesion, w/ inguinal lymphadenopathy

HSV2

17

HSV2 lies dormant in the

Sacral ganglia

18

Neurologically, HSV2 can cause

Meningitis

19

What kind of smear do we use to look for multi-nucleated giant cells in HSV2?

Tzanc smear

20

There is no cure for HSV, but we can prevent breakouts with

Acyclovir and Valcyclovir

21

What is the viral classification of the Epstein-Barr Virus

Double stranded DNA virus

22

The Epstein =-Barr virus causes

Infectious mononucleosis

23

Shows sweating and fever

Infectious mononucleosis

24

Infectious mononucleosis is also classified by tender lymphadenopathy in the

Posterior cervical region

25

We see an increase in cytotoxic T cell in

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

26

Epstein-Barr shows reactive lymphocytosis, aka

Downy cells

27

Have ab oval or folded nucleus

Downy cells

28

During an Epstein-Barr infection, T cells proliferate, causing

Splenomegaly

29

Targets B lymphocytes (white cells) in a new host

-Remains latent in B cells

EBV

30

Binds to CD 21, that is a receptor for compliment component CD3, to infect B Cells

EBV Envelope (glycoprotein)

31

Also causes pharyngitis

EBV

32

Occurs in late teens and adulthood, most likely asymptomatic in children

Mono

33

People infected with EBV will develop a maculopapular rash when treated with

Penicillin

34

Will not cause an allergic reaction if the patient is infected with EBV

Amoxicillin and ampicillin

35

EBV increases risk factors for

3 Cancers

36

The weakened immune system from EBV can result in the development of

B cell lymphoma or Hodgkin's Lymphoma

37

EBV can also increase the risk for Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Burkett lymphoma, in which the most common translocation is

t8:t14

38

In Asian populations, EBV can increase risk for

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

39

In patients with HIV and EBV, we can see a lesion that is NOT precancerous. This lesion is an

Oral hairy leukoplakia

40

EBV is diagnosed during actue infection by a

Monospot IgG test

41

What is the viral classification of the Cytomegalovirus?

DNA virus that replicates in the nucleus

42

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the

Herpes virus family

43

CMV lies latent in

Mononuclear cells, i.e. Leukocytes

44

CMV can be inactivated when

Immunosuppressed

45

CMV is transmitted in many things, in other words it is a

TORCHeS infection

46

The most common fetal CMV presentation is the

Blueberry muffin rash

47

Most common fetal viral infection, presents with blueberry muffin rash (thrombocytopenia) petechial rash like congenital rubella

CMV

48

Other clinical manifestations of CMV include

Jaundice and hepatomegaly

49

Can result in sensoneural hearing loss

CMV infection

50

In the brain, CMV causes

Ventruculomegaly

51

Results in calcifications around ventricles and periventricle calcifications

CMV

52

Also can cause ventricular calcification

Toxoplasmosis

53

The intracranial calcifications resulting CMV can result in

Mental retardation

54

What percentage of the time is CMV asymptomatic?

80%

55

The highest risk of congenital CMV occurs during the

2nd trimester

56

Congenital CMV results in heart failure leading to severe edema. This is called

Hydrops Fetalis

57

The #1 cause of mental retardation from viral infection and the over all #1 cause of sensorineural hearing loss

CMV

58

Organ transplant patients can be infected with

CMV pneumonia

59

AIDS patients are at risk for CMV if their CD4 count is below

50

60

An occular characteristic of CMV is

CMV retinitis (looks like a pizza pie)

61

CMV esophogolitis and colitis, differ from herpes because CMV is

Singular, deep, and linear

62

Shows characteristic owls eye inclusion bodies

CMV infection

63

We can treat CMV with

Ganciclovir

64

When CMV has a UL97 gene mutation, treat with

Foscarnet

65

CMV can cause a mononucleosis that is similar to regular mono, with the exception that the monospot test would be

Negative

66

What is the viral classification of the Varicella Virus?

Enveloped, DS DNA Virus

67

Varicella virus causes the

Chicken Pox

68

Varicella is transmitted by

Respiratory droplets

69

Has the characteristic vesicular rash that is described as dew drops on a rose petal

Varicella Zoster Virus

70

In a case of the chicken pox, every rash is in a different stage of

Healing

71

The tzank smear for a varicella zoster infection shows

Multinucleated giant cells

72

Adults who get chicken pox can also get

Pneumonia

73

The vaccine for Varicella is a

Live vaccine

74

To treat varicella, we give

Acyclovir

75

Varicella virus remains latent to

Dorsal root ganglia

76

Varicella Zoster can become reactivated in older individuals as

Shingles

77

Dew drop like vesicles on an erythematous base, reactivates and travels down dorsal root in a dermatome pattern. Rarely cross the midline

Shingles

78

If the dermatome pattern crosses the midline then it means that we are dealing with

Disseminated VCV

79

The shingles rash is very

Painful

80

We can see pain after shingles, called

Post herpetic neuralgia

81

We can also see this virus infect the trigeminal nerve and cause loss of vision. This is called

Herpes Zoster Opthalmicus

82

We should give the Zoster vaccine for shingles vaccine to adults over

60

83

HIV patients can get zoster vaccine as long as their CD4 count is

Above 200

84

We can treat Shingles and Zoster with

Acyclovir, Famcyclovir, and Valcyclovir

85

Congenital varicella syndrome causes

Limb hypoplasia, Cutaneous scarring in a dermatomal pattern, and blindness

86

What is the viral classification of Human Herpes Virus 6?

DS DNA Virus

87

Human Herpes Virus 6 results in

Roseola (6th Disease)

88

An illness that occurs between 6 months and 2 years of age, high fever, then diffuse maculopapular lacy rash that spares the face

Roseola

89

Roseola is accompanied by a maculopapular rash that spares the

Face

90

What is the fever characteristic of Roseola?

4 day fever of over 104 degrees

91

In 6th disease (Roseola) The fever lasts for 4 days and then we see the appearance of the

Rash

92

There is no treatment for Roseola, we simply must try to keep the patient

Cool

93

What is the viral classification of HHV 8 (Karposi)?

DS DNA virus of the herpes family

94

HHV8 causes

Immunosuppression

95

Commonly infects AIDS patients

HHV8

96

Erythematous violaceous lesions on nose, extremities, and mucous membranes and may be present as a plaque, patch, macule, or nodule

HHV8

97

These characteristics rise from primitive mesenchymal cells involving angiogenesis causing the

Violaceus color

98

HHV8 causes the dysregulation of

VEGF

99

Also results in introintestinal lesions

HHV8

100

The most common lesions seen with HHV8 are in the

Hard palate