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Flashcards in RNA (+) Viruses I Deck (100)
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1

The Picornavirus family is classified as

RNA (+) Virus

2

Is the picnoravirus encapsulated?

No it is naked

3

How is picnoravirus transmitted?

Fecal-oral

4

A respiratory picornavirus

Rhinovirus

5

Uses the host transcription factors, since it is the same sense as host cell, it only needs host RNA polymerase

RNA (+) Viruses

6

POS Sense RNA Replication uses the host transcription factors, since it is the same sense as host cell, it only needs host

RNA polymerase

7

Viral RNA is transmitted into long protein product that contains viral proteases to

Cleave it

8

All RNA positives replicate in the

Cytoplasm

9

Host cell RNA polymerase is in the

Cytoplasm

10

What are the aviary picornaviruses?

Polio, Cocksackie, and Echovirus

11

The aviary viruses cause

Aseptic meningitis

12

Glucose levels are normal with

Aviary picornaviruses

13

The aviary infections are aseptic, meaning that when plated, we find

Nothing

14

Elevated in the aviary infections

Protein

15

Causes the common cold and is transmitted via respiratory route

Rhinovirus

16

Polio virus is classified as a

Positive sense RNA

17

Polio virus is not

Encapsulated

18

This virus replicates in Peyer's patches found in the submucosa in the ileum

Polio

19

Polio replication occurs in the peyers patches and takes

2-3 weeks

20

Infects the Anterior horn of lower motor neuron cell bodies and causes paralysis

Polio

21

Polio causes an ASYMMETRIC paralysis concentrated in the

Lower legs

22

Causes an asymmetric paralysis concentrated in lower legs, myalgia’s, and respiratory deficiency due to paralysis of diaphragm

Polio

23

Polio also results in

Aseptic meningitis

24

Killed vaccine that injected to prevent polio

Salk

25

Bypasses GI tract and only forms IgG antibodies, not IgA

Salk

26

The live-attenuated vaccine for polio

Sabin

27

Makes IgA since goes through stomach mucosa

Sabin

28

The coxsackie virus is another example of a

Positive sense RNA

29

What are the two types of coxsackie virus?

A and B

-Both unencapsulated

30

As a virus, coxsackie is classified as a

Hands, foot, and mouth disease

31

Causes a red vesicular rash

Coxsackie

32

Also causes aseptic (no bacteria on gram stain) meningitis

Coxsackie

33

Coxsackie is most active in the

Summer time

34

What affects does coxsackie have on the heart?

Dilated cardiomyopathy

35

Extreme unilateral sharp pain in chest – pleurodynia

-Caused by coxsackie

Bornholm's disease (Devils grip)

36

Treatment for coxsackie is

Supportive care

37

Naked, positive sense RNA that is classified as the common cold

Rhinovirus

38

Transmitted via inhalation due to it being acid labile

Rhinovirus

39

Rhinovirus is transmitted through

Fomites

40

Rhinovirus enters host cells by attaching to

I-CAM1

41

Needs to be in a cool temp and grows best in the 33 degree C environment of the URT

Rhinovirus

42

There is no vaccine for

Rhinovirus

43

Hepatitis A is classified as a

Naked, Positive sense RNA virus

44

Hapatitis A affects the

Liver

45

Acid stable, allowed to be transmitted fecal oral

Hepatitis A

46

Hep A can be eliminated via

Purification

47

What components do we need to kill Hep A during the purification process?

Chlorine, Bleach, UV irradiation (or boiling)

48

Contaminated water is a source of Hep A in

Developing countries

49

Can be transmitted from shellfish in contaminated sources. Pulled from poop contaminated pond

Hepatitis A

50

Clinically silent without jaundice

Hepatitis A

51

When clinical symptoms do appear, hepatitis A is characterized by

Jaundice (children less likely) and vomiting

52

The vaccine for Hep A is an

Inactivated vaccine

53

Produces one long single protein that is cleaved by viral proteases into smaller active constituents

Calicivirus

54

Calicivirus is also a

Naked, positive sense RNA virus

55

The most common type of calicivirus is

Norovirus (Norwalk Virus)

56

Commonly happen with people in closed quarters, 90% of all diarrhea outbreaks on cruise

Norovirus

57

Can be transmitted by consumption of shellfish or a situation where food is touched by people, because they can contain the virus

Norovirus

58

Clinically, norovirus is classified as an

Explosive Diarrheal Illness

59

What is the viral classification of flavivirus

Enveloped positive sense RNA

60

The major flavivirus is

Hepatitis C

61

Only a single segment of RNA, non segmented RNA

Flavivirus

62

Another common manifestation of flavivirus is

Dengue fever

63

Dengue fever is transmitted by the

Aedes egyptei mosquito

64

Infects bone marrow

-Type 2

Dengue Fever

65

We see an increased risk of bleeding and hemorrhagic fever with

Dengue fever

66

Are also common with dengue fever (very severe)

Renal failure, septic shock, death

67

How do we treat dengue fever?

On your own, supportive, and well hydrated

68

Also transmitted by the aedes egyptei mosquito

Yellow fever

69

Yellow fever is a

Flavivirus

70

What are two clinical characteristics of yellow fever?

Jaundice and back ache

71

Also shows bloody stool and diarrhea, with possible vomiting

Yellow fever

72

The vaccine for yellow fever is

Live-attenuated

73

Birds are the reservoir and mosquitoes are the vector for the

West Nile Virus

74

Three major symptoms of west nile virus are

Encephalitis, meningitis, and flaccid paralysis

75

What are the 4 flaviviruses?

1.) Dengue fever
2.) Yellow fever
3.) West Nile
4.) Hep C

76

What is the viral classification of Hep C?

Enveloped positive sense RNA

77

The common mode of transmission for Hep C is exposure to infected

Blood

78

This can occur via

Blood transfusions, IV drug use, placental sex

79

Hep C has variation in

Antigenic structure

80

In Hep C, the virion coated exonuclease lacks proofreading capacity in the 3’-5’ so the RNA is prone to

Frequent mutations

81

Hep C causes inflammation in the

Liver

82

One clinical manifestation of Hep C is

Jaundice

83

What percentage of people infected with Hep C will become chronic?

60-80%

84

In Hep C infection, lymphocytes infiltrate portal tract killing hepatocytes, leading to

Fibrosis and cirrhosis

85

Hep C can cause the liver to go into a frenzy and become malignant, leading to

Hepatocelular carcinoma

86

An acute hep C infection will show RNA in the serum for 1st 6 months and rising

ALT

87

Associated with cryoglobulins that precipitate out in colder temp that contain IgM

Hep C

88

Hep C is treated with

Ribavirin w/ interferon alpha

89

What can we also use for treatment of Hep C?

Protease inhibitor

90

What is the viral classification of the togavirus?

Enveloped positive sense RNA virus

91

Togavirus is not found in the

Nucleus

92

There are 3 types of arbovirus with mosquitoes as a vector. What are they?

1.) Western equine encephalitis
2.) Venezuelan
3.) Eastern equine encephalitis

93

A childhood disease that is classified as a togavirus

Rubella

94

Congenital rubella is call the

TORCHeS infection

95

Mental retardation, microcephaly, deafness, blindness, cataracts, jaundice, PDA, pulmonic stenosis, and blueberry muffin rash are all clinical signs of

Congenital rubella

96

Congenital rubella is also chracterized by the MC triad, which is made up of

Congenital cataracts, Sensory-neural deafness, and PDA (patent ductus arteriosus)

97

In children, shows post-auricle and occipital lymphadenopathy

Rubella

98

Has the major characteristic of a distinct pattern maculopapular rash that starts on face and spreads downward

-moves faster than measles

Rubella

99

The maculopapular rash in rubella lasts for

3 days

100

Rubella is transmitted via

Respiratory droplets