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Flashcards in RNA (-) Viruses I Deck (100)
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1

What is the viral classification of the orthomyxovirus family?

RNA Neg SS enveloped viruses

2

All RNA (-) viruses bring their own

Polymerase

3

Orthomyxoviruses replicate in the

Nucleus

4

The most common cause of the flu is influenza strains

A, B, and C

5

Has 8 segments, meaning there is 8 places where it can mutate

Influenza

6

A major example of orthomyxovirus is

Influenza

7

Point mutations in the viral genome leading to changes in the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) molecules

Antigenic drift

8

What are the two major classes of influenza mutation?

Antigenic rift and antigenic shift

9

When segments are shared to form a new species

Antigenic Shift

10

Cause segment changes and Pandemics (global scale)

Antigenic shift

11

Influenza that causes epidemics and pandemics

Influenza A (via antigenic shift)

12

Influenza that causes epidemics via antigenic drift

Influenza B

13

A glycoprotein that binds to sialic acid found in membranes in Upper respiratory and RBCs causing them to clump

Hemeagglutinin (HA)

14

Define the cell tropism, i.e. cells that can be affected by influenza

HA antigens H1, H2, and H3

15

HA molecule will bind to sialic acid on the cell membrane. Then the virus is endocytosed into the cell. However, before uncoating, the pH must be changed by

M2 protein

16

Inhibit the M2 protein and thus prevent uncoating of the influenza virus

Amantadine and Rimantadine

17

Amantadine and rimantadine do allow increased

Dopamine release

18

Molecule that allowes the virus to break free from the sialic acid once it is inside the cell

Neuraminidase (NA)

19

NA inhibitors blocking release of virus

Oseltamivir/Anamivir (Tamiflu)

20

There are two types of influenza vaccine, what are they?

Killed (IM) and Live attenuated (nasal)

21

A common comorbidity with influenza is pneumonia caused by

Staph aureus

22

Caused by aspirin treatment and causing encephalitis, and hepatomegaly. Will uncouple mitochondria proton gradient along the electron transport chain in the hepatic cells

Reyes syndrome

23

Don't give kids with the flu aspirin because it can cause

Reyes syndrome

24

What is the viral classification of the parmyxovirus family

SS Negative Sense RNA

25

All negative sense RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm. The only exception is

Orthomyxovirus

26

What is the live attenuated vaccine for paramyxovirus?

MMR (Measles and Mumps are paramyxovirus and Rubella is different)

27

What are the 4 C's to diagnose measles?

Cough, Conjunctivitis, Coryza, Koplic sign

28

Blueish spots on a red background near the molars on the mucosa caused by measles

Koplic Spots

29

Measles comes with a fever of

104 degrees

30

Maculopapular rash late, starts on the head and works down. This is a clinical manifestation of

Measles

31

Another type of rash seen with measles is

Confluence rash

32

One complication of measles is

Pneumonia

33

If you see subacute sclerosing pan enchephalitis, look for

Anti-measles antibodies in the CSF

34

One virulence factor of measles is

HA

35

In measles, cause multinucleated giant cells found in lymphoid tissue

-Causes red inclusion bodies

Fusion proteins

36

What can we give to patients with measles to reduce mortality and complications?

Vitamin A

37

Replicates in the salivary glands

Mumps

38

Has the clinical manifestation of orchitis with impaired fertility and testicular atrophy

Mumps

39

Meningitis can also happen with

Mumps

40

What are the three virulence factors of mumps?

Fusion protein, HA, and NA

41

In babies, Mumps can cause

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

42

Attaches to G protein to infect respiratory epithelial cells

Mumps

43

Most commonly in infants, and shows bronchiolitis and penumonia

Mumps

44

Causes the virulence factors to stick together in Mumps

Fusion protein

45

Can be used to treat mumps in adults

Ribavirion

46

Monoclonal IgG antibody against mumps

Palivisumab

47

What are the three forms of paramyxovirus?

Measles, Mumps, and Parainfluenza

48

Causes a seal park cough (croup)

Parainfluenza

49

What are the three virulence factors of parainfluenza?

NA, HA, and Fusion protein

50

What is the radiographic sign on x-ray that a patient has parainfluenza?

Steeple radiographic sign

51

What is the viral classification of the rhabdovirus?

Encapsulated Negative Sense RNA virus

52

The capsule for rhabdovirus looks

Bullet shaped

53

What is the shape of the nucleocapsid for rhabdovirus?

Helical nucleocapsid

54

Glycoprotein that binds to nicotinic acetocholine receptors in the membrane in the NMJ junction and will replicate there

Rhabdovirus

55

Intitially, rhabdovirus infects the synaptic receptors in the

Motor end plate

56

A popular form of rhabdovirus is

Rabies

57

Moves in a retrograde fashion

Rabies

58

Rabies replicates in

Motor neurons (dorsal roots)

59

Shows the clinical symptoms of encephalopathy and fever

Rabies

60

Diagnosis is clinical and can be confirmed with negri bodies, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions found in hippocampus or cerebellum

Rabies

61

A characteristic feature of rabies is

Negri bodies

62

Shows eosiniphilic negri bodies

Rabies

63

Rabies infects the pyramidal cells of the

Hippocampus

64

Hold negri bodies together

Perkinje cells

65

Has an antidote w/ passive preformed antibodies IgG prior to symptoms and killed vaccine

Rabies

66

You should give a killed vaccine treatment even if you simply wake up with a

Bat in the room

67

What is the viral classification of Ebola (Filovirus)?

Enveloped Negative sense SS helical RNA virus

68

The RNA in ebola is

Helical RNA

69

A key clinical manifestation of filovirus infection is

Hemorrhagic fever and petechial rash

70

The end organ failure seen in filovirus infection is the death of the

Kidneys and Liver

71

A fatal infection

Filovirus (Ebola)

72

Characterized by extreme blood loss and shock

Ebola (filovirus)

73

What are the vectors for filovirus?

Monkeys or fruit bats

74

What is the viral classification of Bunyavirus?

Enveloped negative sense RNA virus

75

The bunya virus obtains the envelope from the

Golgi body of host cells

76

What is the segmentation classification of the Bunyavirus?

Segmented w/ 3 circular segments

77

A moquito virus that falls under bunyavirus

Arborvirus

78

What are the two main types of Bunyavirus?

Arborvirus and Hantavirus

79

Transmitted through rodents, Deer mouse urine and pellets

-Can cause death

Hantavirus

80

Causes pulmonary edema via capillary leak and prerenal azotemia

Hantavirus

81

Another major clinical manifestation of hantavirus is

Hemorrhagic fever

82

Rift valley fever and California encephalitis are two forms of bunyavirus that are from the

Ades mosquito

83

A major neurological symptom of Rift Valley Fever or California encephalitis is

Seizures

84

What is the viral classification of the arena virus?

Enveloped SS NEG Sense RNA virus

85

Has the capacity to encode both RNA negatively and RNA positively

Arena virus

86

What is the caspid shape of the arena virus?

Helical caspid

87

What is the segmentation classification of the arena virus?

Segmented virus, only 2 can reassort

88

Shows a characteristic granular sandy outer caspid on EM

Arena Virus

89

How is the arena virus transmitted in humans?

Rodent transmission

90

A form of the arena virus characterized by febrile aseptic meningitides

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCV)

91

Inactivated by heating, low pH, irradiation and detergents, just really know it’s capable of being inactivated

Arena virus

92

What is the viral classification of the Reovirus?

Naked, double stranded RNA virus

93

How many segments are there to the Reovirus?

11 segments

94

What is the major form of Reovirus?

Rotavirus

95

Rotavirus causes toxic mediated

Secretory diarrhea

96

The secretory diarrhea in rotavirus is caused by

NSP4

97

The secretory diarrhea seen in rotavirus is due to the increased permeability to

Chloride ions

98

The classic outbreak of rotavirus is in the

Winter

99

The population most at risk for Rotavirus is

Children

100

The #1 cause of severe diarrhea in young children

Rotavirus