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Flashcards in Drug Table - Reproduction Deck (57)
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1

Class for:
Estradiol (valerate & cypionate)
Estrone sulfate
Equilin sulfate
Quinestrol

Estradiol esters
(steroidal)

2

Class for:
Ethinyl estradiol
Mestranol

Alkyl estrogen

3

Mechanism for:
Estradiol (valerate & cypionate)
Estrone sulfate
Equilin sulfate
Quinestrol

Ethinyl estradiol
Mestranol

Absorbed through skin, mucus membranes,
GI Tract; body-wide distribution via sexhormone
binding globulin

4

Therapeutics for:
Estradiol (valerate & cypionate)
Estrone sulfate
Equilin sulfate
Quinestrol

Ethinyl estradiol
Mestranol

Contraception, primary hypogonadism,
postmenopausal hormone therapy

5

Imp side effects for:
Estradiol (valerate & cypionate)
Estrone sulfate
Equilin sulfate
Quinestrol

Ethinyl estradiol
Mestranol

Weight gain, HTN; less commonly,
may cause breast cancer, DVT,
cervical and endometrial cancer

6

Other side effects for:
Estradiol (valerate & cypionate)
Estrone sulfate
Equilin sulfate
Quinestrol

Ethinyl estradiol
Mestranol

Nausea, breast tension/pain,
vaginal bleeding, headache

7

Misc for:
Estradiol (valerate & cypionate)
Estrone sulfate
Equilin sulfate
Quinestrol

Ethinyl estradiol
Mestranol

Strongly contraindicated in breast or
endometrial cancers, endometriosis,
undiagnosed vaginal bleeds;
relatively contradinicated in
pregnancy, thromboembolic disease,
HTN, hepatic disease, family history
of breast or uterine cancer

8

Diethylstilbestrol class

Non-steroidal
synthetic estrogen

9

Diethylstilbestrol Imp side effect

Increased risk of clear cell
adenocarcinoma of vagina & cervix

10

Tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex) class

Non-steroidal antiestrogen;
selective
estrogen receptor
modifier

11

Tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex) mechanism

Blocks estrogen from binding ER and
causing growth in ER(+) breast cancer

12

Tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex) therapeutics

ER(+) breast cancer

13

Tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex) imp side effects

Pro-estrogenic effect on uterine
epithelium (increase risk of
endometrial cancer); partial
estrogen agonist in bone and
endometrium

14

Tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex) misc

Anti-estrogenic effect on mammary
epithelium; must be used in very
high doses

15

Clomiphene citrate (Clomid) class

Non-steroidal antiestrogen

16

Clomiphene citrate (Clomid) mechanism

Blocks estrogen binding to hypothalamic
receptors (no estradiol negative feedback
on gonadotropins) --> increased secretion
of gonadotropins & LH --> ovulation

17

Clomiphene citrate (Clomid) therapeutics

Stimulate ovulation in patients who
want to get pregnant

18

Clomiphene citrate (Clomid) imp side effects

Hot flashes, multiple pregnancy

19

Clomiphene citrate (Clomid) other side effects

Stomach pain, headache, upset
stomach, vomit

20

Clomiphene citrate (Clomid) misc

Cis-isomer (zuclomiphene) is a weak
estrogen agonist; trans-isomer
(enclomiphene) is a potent estrogen
antagonist

21

Class
Micronized progesterone
Transvaginal progesterone

Natural
progesterone

22

Therapeutics for
Micronized progesterone
Transvaginal progesterone

Contraception, hormone replacement
therapy

23

Imp side effects for
Micronized progesterone
Transvaginal progesterone

Fatigue, drowsiness

24

Misc for
Micronized progesterone
Transvaginal progesterone

Contraindicated in thromboembolic
disorders or patients with such a
history, liver disease (metabolised in
the liver), undiagnosed vaginal
bleeding, pregnancy (atrophy of
endometrium leading to birth
defects)

25

Class for:
Medroxyprogesterone
Norethindrone
Norgestrel
Megestrol

Synthetic
progesterone

26

Therapeutics for:
Medroxyprogesterone
Norethindrone
Norgestrel
Megestrol

Contraception, hormone replacement
therapy

27

Imp side effects for:
Medroxyprogesterone
Norethindrone
Norgestrel
Megestrol

Edema, abdominal bloating; less
commonly: strong androgenic
effects (hirsutism, acne)

28

Other side effects for:
Medroxyprogesterone
Norethindrone
Norgestrel
Megestrol

Anxiety, irritability, depression,
muscular pain; increased risk of
thrombus and PE

29

Misc for:
Medroxyprogesterone
Norethindrone
Norgestrel
Megestrol

Contraindicated in thromboembolic
disorders or patients with such a
history, liver disease (metabolised in
the liver), undiagnosed vaginal
bleeding, pregnancy (atrophy of
endometrium leading to birth
defects)

30

Class for:
Monophasic Ortho-Novum
Biphasic Ortho-Novum
Triphasic Ortho-Novum

Combination pill

31

Mechanism for:
Monophasic Ortho-Novum
Biphasic Ortho-Novum
Triphasic Ortho-Novum

Constant level of estrogen suppresses FSH,
LH surge; progesterone suppresses LH
surge, thickens cervical mucus, leads to
endometrial atrophy

32

Therapeutics for:
Monophasic Ortho-Novum
Biphasic Ortho-Novum
Triphasic Ortho-Novum

Contraception

33

Imp side effects for:
Monophasic Ortho-Novum
Biphasic Ortho-Novum
Triphasic Ortho-Novum

As with synthetic estrogen and
progesterones

34

Monophasic Ortho-Novum Misc

Consistent dose of estrogen and
progestin (only take 21 days)

35

Biphasic Ortho-Novum Misc

Fixed estrogen, progestin increased
for days 11-21

36

Triphasic Ortho-Novum Misc

Fixed or variable estrogen, while
progestin increases in 3 phases (1-7,
8-14, 15-21)

37

Mini-pill class

Progestin only

38

Mini-pill mechanism

As progestin

39

Mini-pill Therapeutics

Less effective than combination pill for
contraception; use when patient has
estrogen contraindication; good in
lactating women (estrogen reduces milk
production)

40

Mini-pill imp side effect

More likely to produce irregular
menstrual cycle (estrogen required
to provide stability to endometrium)

41

Mini-pill other side effect

Suppresses endometrial cancer

42

Levonorgestrel (Plan B) class

Synthetic
progestogen

43

Levonorgestrel (Plan B) Mechanism

Not known

44

Levonorgestrel (Plan B) Therapeutics

Prevent implantation

45

Levonorgestrel (Plan B) Imp side effect

Likely the same as combination
oral contraceptives

46

Levonorgestrel (Plan B) misc

Must be taken within 72 hours of
coitus

47

Mifepristone (RU-486, Korlym) class

Anti-progestin;
glucocorticoid
receptor
antagonist

48

Mifepristone (RU-486, Korlym) Mechanism

Competitively binds to progesterone
receptor (leading to detachment of fetus);
glucocorticoid recepter antagonist

49

Mifepristone (RU-486, Korlym) Therapeutics

Abortion; Cushing's Syndrome

50

Mifepristone (RU-486, Korlym) Misc

Must take early in pregnancy (by day
49); oral administration; must be
given by doctor in medical facility
prepared for surgery if abortion
incomplete

51

Class for:
Sildenafil citrate (Viagra)
Vardenafil HCl (Levitra)
Tadalafil (Cialis)

PDE5 inhibitor

52

Mechanism for:
Sildenafil citrate (Viagra)
Vardenafil HCl (Levitra)
Tadalafil (Cialis)

Bind catalytic site of PDE5; inhibits PDE5
breakdown of cGMP --> decreased Ca -->
smooth muscle relaxation --> erection

53

Therapeutics for:
Sildenafil citrate (Viagra)
Vardenafil HCl (Levitra)
Tadalafil (Cialis)

Erectile dysfunction; does not trigger an
automatic erection, but improves
response to sexual stimulation

54

Imp side effects for:
Sildenafil citrate (Viagra)
Vardenafil HCl (Levitra)
Tadalafil (Cialis)

Headache, dizziness, change in
vision (NAION)

55

Other side effects for:
Sildenafil citrate (Viagra)
Vardenafil HCl (Levitra)
Tadalafil (Cialis)

Flushing, upset stomach, stuffy
or runny nose, UTI, diarrhea

56

Misc for:
Sildenafil citrate (Viagra)
Vardenafil HCl (Levitra)

Oral (once/day max); half-life of 4
hours, peak plasma concentration in
1-2 hours; contraindicated if on
nitrates or α-blockers (unsafe drop in
BP)

57

Misc for:
Tadalafil (Cialis)

Oral (once/day max); half-life of 17.5
hours, peak plasma concentration in
1-2 hours; contraindicate if on
nitrates or α-blockers (unsafe drop in
BP)