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Pharmacology (5th year) > Drugs of Abuse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drugs of Abuse Deck (28):
1

Define intoxication

- transient syndrome
- psychological and physical impairment

2

Define dependence

- physiological and psychological phenomena

3

Define tolerance

- decreased effect (increased dose required)

4

Define withdrawal

Drug is reduced or withdrawn

5

Main site of action of heroin

- opiate receptors in brain and spinal cord: thalamus, hypothalamus, medulla
- sensory nerves in PNS

6

Physiological effects of heroin

- pain relief
- suppressed cough
- constipation
- drowsiness and confusion
- impaired coordination
- reduced HR, BP and RR
- constricted pupils
- euphoria and pleasure

7

Symptoms of opioid withdrawal

- nausea and vomiting
- muscle aches
- lacrimation
- rhinorrhoea
- sweating
- diarrhoea
- piloerection

8

Treatment of opioid overdose or withdrawal

- naloxone
- long-acting opioids (methadone)
- benzos and loperamide

9

Metabolism of alcohol

- absorbed into bloodstream in small intestine
- metabolised by liver
- excreted in urine, breath, sweat

10

Alcohol pharmacology

- CNS depressant
- enhances the inhibitory effects of GABA on its receptor

11

Physiological effects of alcohol

- altered judgement and reasoning
- pleasure, loss of emotional control
- loss of coordination and balance
- respiration and HR reduced
- alters long term memory formation

12

Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal

- mild anxiety and shakiness
- severe complications: seizures and delirium tremens

13

Medical management of alcohol withdrawal

- benzos
- anticonvulsant drug (carbamazepine)
- beta-blocker

14

Site of action of cocaine

Inhibits actions of Monoamine reuptake transporters

- increases the concentration of monoamines in the synaptic cleft (dopamine, serotonin, nor-epinephrine_

15

Physiological effects of cocaine

- increased energy and motor activity
- increased heart rate and BP
- euphoria
- decreased appetite
- mental alertness
- increased body temp
- dilated puils

16

MOA of methamphetamine

- inhibits monoamine reuptake transporters
- induces release of monoamines into synapse
- binds MAO and blocks degradation of monoamines
- causes the monoamine reuptake transporters to act in reverse

17

Effects of methamphetamine

- irritability and aggression
- anxiety/ paranoia
- increased wakefullness
- tremors/convulsions
- decreased appetitis
- high BP and increased HR

18

Effects of methamphetamine toxicity

- permanent psychosis
- hyperthermia
- stroke
- heart attack

19

MOA of cannabinoids

Similar chemical structure to anandamide, so recognised by neurons and alter normal brain messages
- inhibit release of glutamate or GABA

20

What does THC stand for?

- tetra-hydrocannabinol

21

Signs of cannabis withdrawal

- restlessness
- irritability
- agitation
- insomnia
- nausea
- cramping

22

Treatment of cannabis withdrawal

- benzos
- symptomatic relief

23

What is the two-step testing approach?

- screening test
- confirmation test (gas chromatography- MS)

24

Drugs tested for

- amphetamines
- barbiturates, benzos
- cannabinoids
- cocaine
- opiates
- phencyclidine
- alcohol

25

Possible interpretation of negative urine drug test

- not used drug that was tested for
- infrequent use of drug
- collection too long after drug use
- urine tampered
- test not sensitive

26

Detection time for cannabinoids

Up to 10 days for chronic use

27

Detection time for opiates

up to 4 days

28

3 approaches to specimen tampering

- dilution
- adulteration
- substitution