Non-communicable Diseases Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology (5th year) > Non-communicable Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Non-communicable Diseases Deck (22):
1

Patients who are eligible for dialysis

- <55 years (normal)
- <50 years if diabetic
- candidate for transplant

2

Effects of hypertension

- stroke
- LVH
- RF
- retinal hypertension

3

Lifestyle modifications

- decrease sodium
- smoking
- alcohol
- stress
- exercise
- beware of hidden fats

4

Why do diabetics struggle to lose weight?

If their insulin levels are too high, they put on weight because insulin is anabolic
- cant break down fat
- must decrease carbs

5

Substances that increase BP

- sympathomimetics
- caffeine
- NSAIDS
- prednisone
- salt
- liquorice

6

Classes used in hypertension treatment

- ACE-I
- BB
- CCBs
- diuretics

7

Rules when giving ACE-I to a patient with renal impairment

- start low
- monitor GFR by calculating Cr-clearance
- monitor potassium levels (less aldosterone, less K secretion)

8

Side effects of ACE-I

- cough
- angioedema
- postural hypotension

9

Problems with using BB for hypertension

- doesn't work as well at decreasing MAP
- can cause insulin resistance
- when given with thiazides, corticosteroids or neuroleptics, impaired glucose tolerance is worse

10

Pros for using CCBs for hypertension

- little monitoring needed
- no elecrolyte disturbances
- few adverse events

11

2 main types of CCBs

- dihydropyridines (nefedipine, amlodipine)
- non-dihydropyridines (verapamil)

12

Problem with verapamil

- vasodilates, but causes bradycardia
- patient must have a myocardium that can contract
- good for asthmatics

13

Effect of nefedipine

- mainly causes peripheral vasodilatation, with little effect on heart contraction

14

MOA of thiazide diuretics

- inhibit Na-Cl channels in the DCT
- increase sodium and water loss and vasoldilatation

15

Side effects of thiazide diuretics

- increased urination
- electrolyte abnormalities (hypokalaemia, hypernatraemia - give low doses)
- impaired glucose tolerance
- hyperuricaemia

16

Main classes used for IHD

- nitrates
- asprin

17

MOA of nitrates

- increases NO
- peripheral vasodilatation and venodilatation
- decreases venous return and preload

18

Contraindications for nitrates

- fixed output states
- RVF
- erectile dysfunction

19

Contraindications for asprin

- asthma (increased influx down leukotriene pathway leads to bronchospasm)
- peptic ulcer

20

HBA1c aim for diabetics

7.5%

21

Action of metformin

- switches off gluconeogenesis
- improves glucose utilization and restores insulin receptors

22

Side effect of metformin

Diarrhoea