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Flashcards in DS Deck (48):
1

Damage to the perineal body/pelvic floor may cause dysfunction of this muscle

levator ani

2

What term describes the collapse of the following into the anterior wall of the vagina: bladder, rectum, rectovaginal pouch

Cystocele, rectocele, enterocele

3

A median episiotomy can damage this structure

perineal body

4

A mediolateral episiotomy spares this structure ________ but runs the risk of this complication __________

perineal body, abscess in the ischioanal fossa

5

An abscess of the ischioanal fossa could potentially damage what 3 structures?

obturator internus, pelvic diaphragm (pubococcygeus, levator ani), and external anal sphincter

6

What is done in a culdocentesis?

Drainage of the peritoneal cavity (i.e. ascites) via the posterior vaginal fornix into the rectouterine pouch of Douglass

7

This is is a route of metastasis from the pelvic venous network to the vertebrae

Batson's venous plexus

8

What are the roles of parasympathetic nerves (pelvic splanchnic) and pudendal nerves in erection?

Both S2-4, parasympathetics dilate the vascular smooth muscle and pudendal contracts the perineal muscles

9

Which fibers are important for emission of sperm from the ductus deferens?

L1-L2 sympathetic

10

Which fibers are important for ejaculation?

L1-2 close the internal urethral sphincter, S2-4 para contract urethral smooth muscle and S2-4 pudendal contract perineal muscles

11

This is the normal position of the uterus

anteverted and anteflexed

12

Damage to what 2 fascial ligaments can cause uterine prolapse? Which peritoneal fold?

The uterosacral and transverse cervical; broad ligament

13

Most common (general) location of ectopic pregnancy

Fallopian tube

14

Which lymph nodes drain the uterine tube and ovary?

Lumbar (para-aortic)

15

Which lymph nodes drain the fundus of the uterus?

Lumbar (para-aortic)

16

Which lymph nodes drain the body/cervix of the fundus?

external and internal iliac, obturator, and sacral

17

Which LN's drain the area of the cervix near the attachment of the round ligament?

superficial inguinal

18

Which LN's drain the upper 2/3 of the vagina?

internal and external iliac and sacral

19

Which LN drain the lower part of the vagina and vulva

superficial inguinal

20

How is it possible that cervical cancer can spread to the labia majora?

The area of the cervix nerar the round ligament of the uterus drains to superficial inguinal nodes, which are located near labia majora and also drain the labia majora

21

What is your landmark for a perineal nerve block?

Ischial spine, the pudendal nerve crosses the ischial spine

22

The Y chromosome contains the genetic code for this molecule which changes the default female to a male

testis determining factor

23

Where do germ cells travel to?

the genital ridge, a pair of longitudinal ridges medial to the mesonephric ridges

24

How are the primitive sex cords formed?

a proliferation of coelomic epithelium into the mesenchyme of the genital ridge

25

Which cells (in a the ovary) are derived from primordial germ cells and coelomic epithelium, respectively?

oocytes and follicular cells (Theca and granulosa)

26

What does the part of the gubernaculum between the uterus and the ovary become?

the ovarian ligament

27

What does the part of the gubernaculum between the uterus and labia majora become?

round ligament of the uterus

28

What is the canal of Nuck?

a persistend processus vaginalis in women (in men this would = hydrocele)

29

The mesonephric duct (Wolfiann duct) is important for this embryonic organ

mesonephric (intermediate) kidney

30

What does the mesonephric duct become in males?

efferent ductules

31

What molecule results in a persistence of the mesonephric ducts?

testosterone, with it they become efferent ductules, without it they regress to remnants in a woman

32

What are the remnants of the mesonephric duct in a woman called?

epoopheron and paraoopheron

33

What benign "pathology" can form in a woman from here mesonephric duct remnants?

Gartner's cysts

34

What molecule in a male causes persistence of the mesonephric ducts? Regression of the paramesonephric ducts?

testosterone; Mullerian Inhibiting factor (MIF), respectively

35

The paramesonephric ducts give rise to these 3 structures

uterine tubes, uterus, and superior part of vagina

36

When is genotypic sex determined?

at fertilization

37

When is phenotypic sex determined

that depends but it results from the interaction of a lot of different molecules, and their absence may result in ambiguous genitalia

38

What happens to the ovaries in Turner's syndrome?

they are streak ovaries, underdeveloped

39

In testicular feminization syndrome which leads to a blind-ending vagina, absent/rudimentary uterine tubes, and testes in the abdomen results from a defect in this:

androgen receptor

40

What kind of hermaphrodite may have an ovotestis?

A true hermaphrodite (extremely rare)

41

Absence of which 2 molecules would most likely lead to pseudohermphrodism in a genetic male?

either testosterone or MIF

42

What is the most common cause of pseudohermaphrodism in a genetic female?

loss of 21 hydroxylase (congentical adrenal hyperplasia)

43

From what embryonic cell do sperm arise?

primordial germ cells

44

From what embryonic cell do seminiferous tubules/sertoli cells arise?

coelomic epithelium

45

From what embryonic cell do Leydig cells arise?

mesenchyme

46

From what embryonic cell does the ovarian stroma arise?

mesenchyme

47

From what embryonic tissue do follicle cells arise?

coelomic epithelium

48

From what embryonic cell do oogonia arise?

PGC's