Damage to the perineal body/pelvic floor may cause dysfunction of this muscle
What term describes the collapse of the following into the anterior wall of the vagina: bladder, rectum, rectovaginal pouch
Cystocele, rectocele, enterocele
A median episiotomy can damage this structure
A mediolateral episiotomy spares this structure ________ but runs the risk of this complication __________
perineal body, abscess in the ischioanal fossa
An abscess of the ischioanal fossa could potentially damage what 3 structures?
obturator internus, pelvic diaphragm (pubococcygeus, levator ani), and external anal sphincter
What is done in a culdocentesis?
Drainage of the peritoneal cavity (i.e. ascites) via the posterior vaginal fornix into the rectouterine pouch of Douglass
This is is a route of metastasis from the pelvic venous network to the vertebrae
Batson's venous plexus
What are the roles of parasympathetic nerves (pelvic splanchnic) and pudendal nerves in erection?
Both S2-4, parasympathetics dilate the vascular smooth muscle and pudendal contracts the perineal muscles
Which fibers are important for emission of sperm from the ductus deferens?
Which fibers are important for ejaculation?
L1-2 close the internal urethral sphincter, S2-4 para contract urethral smooth muscle and S2-4 pudendal contract perineal muscles
This is the normal position of the uterus
anteverted and anteflexed
Damage to what 2 fascial ligaments can cause uterine prolapse? Which peritoneal fold?
The uterosacral and transverse cervical; broad ligament
Most common (general) location of ectopic pregnancy
Which lymph nodes drain the uterine tube and ovary?
Which lymph nodes drain the fundus of the uterus?
Which lymph nodes drain the body/cervix of the fundus?
external and internal iliac, obturator, and sacral
Which LN's drain the area of the cervix near the attachment of the round ligament?
Which LN's drain the upper 2/3 of the vagina?
internal and external iliac and sacral
Which LN drain the lower part of the vagina and vulva
How is it possible that cervical cancer can spread to the labia majora?
The area of the cervix nerar the round ligament of the uterus drains to superficial inguinal nodes, which are located near labia majora and also drain the labia majora
What is your landmark for a perineal nerve block?
Ischial spine, the pudendal nerve crosses the ischial spine
The Y chromosome contains the genetic code for this molecule which changes the default female to a male
testis determining factor
Where do germ cells travel to?
the genital ridge, a pair of longitudinal ridges medial to the mesonephric ridges
How are the primitive sex cords formed?
a proliferation of coelomic epithelium into the mesenchyme of the genital ridge
Which cells (in a the ovary) are derived from primordial germ cells and coelomic epithelium, respectively?
oocytes and follicular cells (Theca and granulosa)
What does the part of the gubernaculum between the uterus and the ovary become?
the ovarian ligament
What does the part of the gubernaculum between the uterus and labia majora become?
round ligament of the uterus
What is the canal of Nuck?
a persistend processus vaginalis in women (in men this would = hydrocele)
The mesonephric duct (Wolfiann duct) is important for this embryonic organ
mesonephric (intermediate) kidney
What does the mesonephric duct become in males?
What molecule results in a persistence of the mesonephric ducts?
testosterone, with it they become efferent ductules, without it they regress to remnants in a woman
What are the remnants of the mesonephric duct in a woman called?
epoopheron and paraoopheron
What benign "pathology" can form in a woman from here mesonephric duct remnants?
What molecule in a male causes persistence of the mesonephric ducts? Regression of the paramesonephric ducts?
testosterone; Mullerian Inhibiting factor (MIF), respectively
The paramesonephric ducts give rise to these 3 structures
uterine tubes, uterus, and superior part of vagina
When is genotypic sex determined?
When is phenotypic sex determined
that depends but it results from the interaction of a lot of different molecules, and their absence may result in ambiguous genitalia
What happens to the ovaries in Turner's syndrome?
they are streak ovaries, underdeveloped
In testicular feminization syndrome which leads to a blind-ending vagina, absent/rudimentary uterine tubes, and testes in the abdomen results from a defect in this:
What kind of hermaphrodite may have an ovotestis?
A true hermaphrodite (extremely rare)
Absence of which 2 molecules would most likely lead to pseudohermphrodism in a genetic male?
either testosterone or MIF
What is the most common cause of pseudohermaphrodism in a genetic female?
loss of 21 hydroxylase (congentical adrenal hyperplasia)
From what embryonic cell do sperm arise?
primordial germ cells
From what embryonic cell do seminiferous tubules/sertoli cells arise?
From what embryonic cell do Leydig cells arise?
From what embryonic cell does the ovarian stroma arise?
From what embryonic tissue do follicle cells arise?
From what embryonic cell do oogonia arise?