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Flashcards in beaton htn and dm Deck (42):

What is the triad of pre-ecclampsia?

proteinuria, HTN ,edema


Describe the deep tendon reflexes of a pre-ecclamptic woman

They are hyper-reflexic, pre-ecclampsia is associated with CNS hyperexcitability


What is the cause of epigastric pain in pre-ecclampsia (classically)?

swelling of Glisson's capsule of the liver due to edema


What placental disorder is correlated with Pre-ecclampsia?

placental abruption


What are 2 important fetal sequelae of pre-ecclampsia?

Intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity


Describe the blood pressure and urine protein changes associated with mild pre-ecclampsia

BP = 140/90, proteinuria > 0.3 g in 24 hours


What are the BP and urine protein in severe pre-ecclampsia?

160/110 and greater than 5 g in 24 hours


Why is increased urine output in a pre-ecclamptic woman after giving birth a "reassuring sign"?

Because they may become oliguric during pre-ecclampsia due to changes in the glomerulus, thus if urine output increases that is a sign that the changes of pre-ecclampsia are starting to return to normal


What does HELLP sydrome stand for?

Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets


How does ecclampsia differ from pre-ecclampsia?

ecclampsia is associated with the development of convulsions


What fetal wellbeing tests can you order in an ecclamptic woman?

NST, CST, BPP; even in pre-ecclampsia you should do these 2x per week "that is the single most important thing to do"


If a woman has mild pre-ecclampsia when should you deliver?

If she is 38 weeks gestation, S/S are progressing, or if there is evidence of fetal compromise (i.e. by the wellbeing tests)


T/F: both mild and severe pre-ecclamptics need to be hospitalized

false mild pre-ecclamptics can be managed at home IF THEY ARE A RELIABLE PATIENT, severe pre-ecclamptics should be hospitalized


If a woman has severe pre-ecclampsia when should she deliver?

if the baby is after 32 weeks, with mild preeclampsia it was 38 weeks


Corticosteroids are beneficial to the baby of a pre-ecclamptic for what 2 reasons?

they help with lung maturity and they help the weak vessels of the brain mature


What is the DOC for preventing seizures during the intrapartum mgmt of a pre-ecclamptic woman?

IV magnesium sulfate, directly antagonizes calcium


Name 3 drugs for the antihypertensive Tx of pre-ecclamptics

IV labetalol, IV hydralazine, and alpha methyldopa


What is the goal for HTN correction and why would you not want to drop below it ?

140/90, a drop below this can underperfuse the baby


What is the puerperium? What if a woman is being Tx'd for pre-ecclampsia but is still hypertensive after the puerperium?

The 6-8 week period where a woman's body returns to normal after a pregnancy. If she is still HTN, then it is likely that she had pre-existing HTN


T/F: pre-ecclampsia increases the risk of developing essential HTN

false they usually return to normal after, and if they do not then they probably already had essential HTN


How is gestational HTN different from pre-ecclampsia? How is it different from essential HTN?

It is HTN after 20 weeks of pregnancy without proteinuria. Pre-ecclamptics would have proteinuria and edema and essential HTN is what occurs without pregnancy or would have been present prior to 20 weeks gestation


A diagnosis of chronic HTN can be made if the HTN was found during pregnancy and lasts ________ weeks post-partum



Can you use ACE-I's/ARB's in pregnancy?

no, teratogenic


Can you use BB's in pregnancy?

You can but they can cause IUGR


Can you use diuretics in pregnant ppl?

no it can compromise the fetus by depleting maternal blood volume, i.e. the fetus will be underperfused


What is chronic HTN with superimposed pre-ecclampsia? How should it be managed?

Pre-existing HTN with the development of >0.3 g proteinuria, mgmt is same as pre-ecclampsia


What 2 issues of fetal body size are associated with maternal diabetes?

opposite ends of spectrum = IUGR and fetal macrosomia


What are 3 congenital anomalies associated with maternal diabetes?

Cardiac (first aid says transposition, especially), neural tube defects, and sacral agenesis


How are the fetal complications of gestational diabetes different from that of pre-existing diabetes?

Both will have fetal macrosomia and IUGR but gestational diabetics don't have the issues with organogenesis probably because organogenesis is complete by the time gestational DM sets in


Why should you do a fasting blood sugar on all pregnant patients in the first trimester?

because they may not know they are diabetic; if they meet diabetic criteria in the FIRST TRIMESTER then they are a REAL diabetic not just gestational


What is the screening test for gestational diabetes?

50 gram glucola test? Drink it, if blood glucose is > 140 one hour later then you do the diagnostic test


What is the diagnostic test for gestational diabetes?

A 100 gram 3 hour glucose tolerance test (normally it would be a 75 g in a nonpregnant person)? If you get 2 abnormal values on a 3 hour (i.e. abnormal at 1, 2, or 3 hours) it is positive


What are the White Categories for gestational diabetes?

A1 does not need insulin because diet and exercise return values to normal and A2 needs insulin b/c diet and exercise is not sufficient


What is the initial treatment of gestational diabetes?

diet and exercise!


Why are serial ultrasounds important in diabetic mothers?

because of the issues with fetal growth, you want to closely watch the fetus to make sure there is no macrosomia or IUGR


What is the glucose goal in the intrapartum period?



Why do insulin requirements drop after delivery?

insulin antagonists from the placenta are no longer present


How is the treatment of a pre-existing diabetic vs. a gestational diabetic different after delivery?

A gestational diabetic's levels will very likely go back to normal, a pre-existing diabetic will probably have a 2-3 day reprieve and then will need to resume Tx


What screening test do you use in gestational diabetes? Confirmatory test?

50 g glucola test, 100 g GTT


What test do you use to see if a gestational diabetic is back to normal after delivery

75 g GTT 6-8 weeks post partum


T/F pre-ecclampsia increases the risk of developing essential/primary HTN



T/F gestational diabetes increases the chances of developing type II DM