Dyslexia and SSD (Ch. 16) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Dyslexia and SSD (Ch. 16) Deck (23):
1

A language where individual sounds can be represented by more than one sound has a ___________ ___________________.

deep orthography

2

Another word for deep orthography

opaque orthography

3

T/F: English has a shallow orthography.

False. English has a deep orthography.

4

T/F: Spanish has a transparent orthography.

True. Letters and sounds in Spanish have a predictable, one-to-one relationship.

5

A well-specified mental representation of speech sounds

Phonological Awareness

6

T/F Phonetic Awareness and Phonological Awareness are synonymous.

True.

7

Research shows that individuals with dyslexia have deficits in ________________ processing skills.

Phonological

8

T/F: Dyslexia is often associated with variations in cognitive ability.

False. It is thought to have neurobiological origin and does not correlate to IQ.

9

Earlier studies revealed brain ________________ in individuals with Dyslexia.

Asymmetry

10

Brain activation region thought to support effortful phonological and articulatory decoding

Inferior Frontal Gyrus (includes Broca's area)

11

Dyslexia is a specific disability that ___________ with the acquisition of _____________ language at the word level, characterized by deficits in accurate and/or fluent word _____________, decoding and spelling.

Interferes
written
recognition
(defined by the International Dyslexia Association)

12

Reading involves what two different processes?

1. Decoding words by applying orthographic rules
2. Recognizing irregularly spelled sight words

13

Dyslexia impairment with decoding but not sight words

Phonological Dyslexia

14

Dyslexia impairment with sight words but not decoding

Surface Dyslexia

15

Dyslexia impairment with both decoding and sight words

Alexia or Deep Dyslexia

16

The co-occurrence of two or more disorders (causally related) in the same individual.

Comorbidity

17

What is one reason for the difficulty in estimating SSD/Dyslexia comorbidity rates in children?

SSD is frequently diagnosed and treated in a preschooler but dyslexia cannot be diagnosed and treated until well after literacy and reading instruction begin.

18

Why does learning to read and spell in English present more challenges than in other languages such as Spanish?

English has a deep orthography, many irregularly spelled words and silent letters.

19

What are the core elements of the dyslexia definition issued by the International Dyslexia Association?

Difficulties with written language
Restricted to word level
Involves processes of decoding, sight words, spelling
Affects accuracy and fluency
No cognitive impairment

20

Deficits and Characteristics of dyslexia (4)

Auditory Processing Deficits
Phonemic Awareness Deficits
Structural/Functional Brain Differences
Genetic Etiology

21

Why are so many more boys than girls thought to have dyslexia?

High male:female ratio may be an artifact of other behavioral differences between boys and girls, such as attention and activity levels.

22

What type of preschool child with SSD is most likely to later present with dyslexia?

A child who shows:
1. Speech difficulties persisting into the school years
2. Impaired phonological processing skills
3. Evidence of language impairment

23

A child who is being treated for SSD and is also struggling with reading or spelling may have what underlying deficit?

Phonological Processing Deficit