Flashcards in Dyslipidemia Deck (92)
Describe how lipids and lipoproteins function as fuel within our bodies
Fatty acids break down to form acetyl CoA, NADH, FADh2
- when attached to glycerol, fatty acids are stored as triglycerides
What makes up the lipid cell membrane?
What are the lipid-derived steroid hormones?
- Sex hormones
Describe the function of bile salts within our bodies, and what is the main bile salt?
Function as detergents to emulsify fats
- Glycocholate is the main bile salt
Describe the function of prostaglandins within our bodies
Diverse hormone-like fxn
- smooth muscle contraction, platelet aggregation, and inflammatory response
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
A, D, E, K
Lipids combine with what?
What is the physiology of cholesterol and triglycerides? and what are they associated with?
Both are insoluble in water (hydrophobic core) and must be transported in association w/ protein (ie lipoprotein)
What are the functions/key roles of lipoproteins?
- Absorption and transport of dietary lipids by small intestines
- Transport of lipids from the liver to peripheral tissues
- Transport of lipids from the peripheral tissues to the liver (ex: HDL)
- Transport toxic foreign hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds from areas of invasion and infxn.
The intestines make what particles? and what are they?
Chylomicrons: Large triglyceride rich particles
Chylomicrons are involved in what transport?
Transport of dietary triglycerides and cholesterol to peripheral tissues and liver
Very Low Density Lipropteins (VLDL) are produced by what? and is rich in what?
- Triglyceride rich
VLDL particles contain what? and what it is?
Apo B-100: a core structural protein (1 per VLDL particle)
What is Low Density Lipoptroein (LDL)? and what does it carry?
- Bad cholesterol
- Carried the majority of the cholesterol in the circulation.
LDL particles contain what?
Apo B-100, each LDL particle has Apo B-100 molecule
Compared to large LDL, small dense LDL are more what?
- longer duration, easily enters the arterial wall, and binds to intraarterial proteoglycans
What is High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)? and what does it enhance?
- Good Cholesterol
- Enhance deposition of cholesterol into the liver vice the blood vessels (reserve cholesterol transport)
What is the potential mechanism of HDL? and how do you increase HDL levels?
- Increase via exercise and moderate consumption of alcohol.
What other properties does HDL have that may contribute to their ability to inhibit atherosclerosis?
What levels of HDL are considered high risk, intermediate, and protective?
- High: <40 mg/dL
- Intermediate: 40-60 mg/dL
- Protective "neg CV risk factor": >60 mg/dL
What are the 4 functions of apolipoproteins (Apo B-48, ApoB-100, Apo E)
- Structural role
- Acts as a ligand for lipoprotein receptors
- Guide formation of lipoproteins
- Serve as activators or inhibitors of enzymes involved in lipoprotein metabolism
Elevated LDL is a major risk factor for what?
CAD and cerebrovascular dz
What is the most important and modifiable risk factor for CAD and what does it cause?
- accelerated atherosclerosis
What medication are risk factors for elevated cholesterol?
- Thiazides: increase LDL, TC, TG (VLDL)
- Beta blockers (Propanolol): increase TG (VLDL) and lower HDL levels
- Estrogens: increased TG levels in pts w/ hypertriglyceridemia
- Corticosteriords and HIV protease inhibitors can increase serum lipids
Do you want a high or low total cholesterol to HDL ration?
Low, want a ratio of less than 4.5
(5.0 is average/standard risk)
Xanthelasmas are a severe hyperlipidemia manifestation, what is it?
Yellow plaques on eyelids
Xanthomas are a severe hyperlipidemia manifestation, what is it?
Hard, yellowish masses found on tendons (finger extensors, Achilles tendon, plantar tendons)
What level of total cholesterol is a high risk for CAD?
(normal is <200)
What are the normal levels of HDL in males and females?