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Flashcards in Thyroid Neoplasms Deck (13)
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What cell types found in the thyroid gland can neoplasms arise in?

- Vascular elements
- Stromal
- Thyroid follicular cells
- Lymphocytes
- Calcitonin-producing C cells


What is the name of the benign thyroid neoplasms?

Adenomas (Follicular Epithelial Cell Adenomas)


What is the name of the malignant thyroid neoplasms?

Carcinomas of the follicular epithelium


What are the 3 types of carcinomas of the follicular epithelium

- Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC)
- Follicular Thyroid Cancer (FTC)
- Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer (ATC)


What are some clinical features of Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC)?

- Least Aggressive (and MC)
- Slow growing
- Spreads by Lymphatic & Local Extension
- Often Curable
- Good Prognosis


What are some clinical features of Follicular Thyroid Cancer (FTC)?

- More common in iodine-deficient areas of the world
- Difficult to dx w/ FNA
- Often Metastasized to Lung, Bone, Brain, Liver
- Often Curable
- Good to Poor Prognosis


What are some clinical features of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer (ATC)?

- Most aggressive
- Very rare
- Seen in Elderly
- Often Causes Dysphagia or Vocal Cord Paralysis
- Responds Poorly to Treatment
- Rapidly Fatal


What are poor prognosis features seen in a pt with Follicular Thyroid Cancer (FTC)?

- Distant metastasis
- Age > 50
- Primary tumor size >4cm
- Presence of marked vascular invasion


Is thyroid cancer seen in more men or women?

- Women > Man (3:1)


What is the age range in men with thyroid cancer? And is the prognosis better or worse?

- Age <20 or > 45
- Larger nodule sized is Worse Prognosis


What are some risk factors for thyroid cancer?

- Hx of head and neck irradiation
- Age: <20 or >45
- Vocal cord paralysis, hoarse voice
- Nodule fixed to adjacent structures
- Extrathyroidal extension
- Suspected lymph node involvement
- Family hx
- Bilateral dx
- Increased nodule size >4cm
- New or growing neck mass
- Male gender
- Iodine deficiency (follicular cancer)


What is the clinical presentation of thyroid cancer?

- Dysphagia
- Hoarseness
- Neck Pain
- Noticeable enlargement of thyroid gland
- Palpable nodule or asymmetry


What are some thyroid cancer treatment options?

- Surgery: for all types

- TSH Suppression Therapy: because most tumors are still TSH-responsive, levothyroxine suppression of TSH is a mainstay of cancer treatment

- Radioiodine Treatment: Post-op radioablation of any remnant thyroid eliminates residual