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Endocrinology > Thyroid Neoplasms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thyroid Neoplasms Deck (13)
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1

What cell types found in the thyroid gland can neoplasms arise in?

- Vascular elements
- Stromal
- Thyroid follicular cells
- Lymphocytes
- Calcitonin-producing C cells

2

What is the name of the benign thyroid neoplasms?

Adenomas (Follicular Epithelial Cell Adenomas)

3

What is the name of the malignant thyroid neoplasms?

Carcinomas of the follicular epithelium

4

What are the 3 types of carcinomas of the follicular epithelium

- Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC)
- Follicular Thyroid Cancer (FTC)
- Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer (ATC)

5

What are some clinical features of Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC)?

- Least Aggressive (and MC)
- Slow growing
- Spreads by Lymphatic & Local Extension
- Often Curable
- Good Prognosis

6

What are some clinical features of Follicular Thyroid Cancer (FTC)?

- More common in iodine-deficient areas of the world
- Difficult to dx w/ FNA
- Often Metastasized to Lung, Bone, Brain, Liver
- Often Curable
- Good to Poor Prognosis

7

What are some clinical features of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer (ATC)?

- Most aggressive
- Very rare
- Seen in Elderly
- Often Causes Dysphagia or Vocal Cord Paralysis
- Responds Poorly to Treatment
- Rapidly Fatal

8

What are poor prognosis features seen in a pt with Follicular Thyroid Cancer (FTC)?

- Distant metastasis
- Age > 50
- Primary tumor size >4cm
- Presence of marked vascular invasion

9

Is thyroid cancer seen in more men or women?

- Women > Man (3:1)

10

What is the age range in men with thyroid cancer? And is the prognosis better or worse?

- Age <20 or > 45
- Larger nodule sized is Worse Prognosis

11

What are some risk factors for thyroid cancer?

- Hx of head and neck irradiation
- Age: <20 or >45
- Vocal cord paralysis, hoarse voice
- Nodule fixed to adjacent structures
- Extrathyroidal extension
- Suspected lymph node involvement
- Family hx
- Bilateral dx
- Increased nodule size >4cm
- New or growing neck mass
- Male gender
- Iodine deficiency (follicular cancer)

12

What is the clinical presentation of thyroid cancer?

- Dysphagia
- Hoarseness
- Neck Pain
- Noticeable enlargement of thyroid gland
- Palpable nodule or asymmetry

13

What are some thyroid cancer treatment options?

- Surgery: for all types

- TSH Suppression Therapy: because most tumors are still TSH-responsive, levothyroxine suppression of TSH is a mainstay of cancer treatment

- Radioiodine Treatment: Post-op radioablation of any remnant thyroid eliminates residual