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Flashcards in Endocrine HPI/PE Deck (78)
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1

What is adrenarche?

Onset of androgen-dependent body changes such as growth of axillary and pubic hair, body, body odor, and acne

2

What is acral?

Pertaining to peripheral body parts such of fingers and toes

3

What is Acrochordon?

Skin tags

4

What is acanthosis nigricans?

- Common skin pigmentation
- thick velvety texture
- patches appear on armpits, groin, neck, elbow, knees, knuckles, or skin fold

5

What is acanthosis nigricans related to?

- Insulin resistance (elevated insulin states)
- Obesity
- Acromegaly

6

What age is considered amenorrhea? and how many missed periods qualifies a pt for amenorrhea?

- Girls who haven't begun menstruation by age 15
- At least 3 missed periods

7

What are the causes for amenorrhea?

- Pregnancy
- inability to regulate hormones

8

What is exopthalmosis?

- Prominence of the eyes secondary to thyroid disease
- Hyperthyroidism (Graves dz)

9

What is proptosis?

- Abnormal protrusion or displacement of an eye or other body parts due to all other causes

10

What is hirsutism? and what is it caused by?

- Male pattern hair growth in women, on face chest and back
- Caused by: excess male hormones called androgens, primarily testosterone

11

When is menarche?

Onset of menstruation

12

What is precocious puberty? and what are the ages for girls and boys?

Early onset of puberty
- 8 in girls
- 9 in boys

13

What is pubarche?

Appearance of sexual hair

14

What is puberty?

Developmental stages during which secondary sexual characteristics appear

15

What is Thelarche?

Onset of female breast development

16

What is virilization?

- Biological development of sex differences
- Changes that make a male body diff from female body
- These changes are produced by androgens

17

What is the challenge when completing an HPI for an endocrine problem?

- a pt may harbor more than one endocrinopathy which could be overlooked if subtle historical and clinical cues are over looked
- don't be in a hurry w/ your hx

18

What does male development require?

Normal function of hypothalamic - testicular axis.

19

Amenorrhea is an important clue in the breakdown of what?

Hypothalamic - pituitary - ovarian axis

20

What is the diagnosis of too much growth hormones in an adult pt?

Acromegaly

21

Amenorrhea + galactorrhea w/ elevated prolactin levels suggest what?

Pituitary tumor

22

What are the steps of HPI?

- Hx
- PE
- Labs
- radiologic imaging

23

What are complaints of an older pt with hyperthyroidism?

- Fatigue
- weight loss
- constipation

24

What are complaints of an younger pt with hyperthyroidism?

- Overactivity
- Nervousness
- Jitteriness
- Temperature intolerance

25

What are sxs of hypothyroidism?

- Depression
- Fatigue
- Mild weight gain or difficulty loosing weight

26

What would indicate thyroiditis?

Recent viral illness presenting w/ trouble swallowing and tender thyroid

27

A female pt presenting with recurrent vaginal candidiasis or pt with recurrent UTI should be evaluated for what?

Diabetic evolution/work-up

28

Describe the onset of type 2 DM?

Gradually slower onset of sxs

29

What is the onset of type 1 DM and sxs?

Acute onset
- blurred vision
- Frequent infections
- Non-healing ulcers
- Numb or painful extremities

30

What are alimentary changes?

Changes to nutrition, digestion and absorption