Flashcards in Endocrine HPI/PE Deck (78)
What is adrenarche?
Onset of androgen-dependent body changes such as growth of axillary and pubic hair, body, body odor, and acne
What is acral?
Pertaining to peripheral body parts such of fingers and toes
What is Acrochordon?
What is acanthosis nigricans?
- Common skin pigmentation
- thick velvety texture
- patches appear on armpits, groin, neck, elbow, knees, knuckles, or skin fold
What is acanthosis nigricans related to?
- Insulin resistance (elevated insulin states)
What age is considered amenorrhea? and how many missed periods qualifies a pt for amenorrhea?
- Girls who haven't begun menstruation by age 15
- At least 3 missed periods
What are the causes for amenorrhea?
- inability to regulate hormones
What is exopthalmosis?
- Prominence of the eyes secondary to thyroid disease
- Hyperthyroidism (Graves dz)
What is proptosis?
- Abnormal protrusion or displacement of an eye or other body parts due to all other causes
What is hirsutism? and what is it caused by?
- Male pattern hair growth in women, on face chest and back
- Caused by: excess male hormones called androgens, primarily testosterone
When is menarche?
Onset of menstruation
What is precocious puberty? and what are the ages for girls and boys?
Early onset of puberty
- 8 in girls
- 9 in boys
What is pubarche?
Appearance of sexual hair
What is puberty?
Developmental stages during which secondary sexual characteristics appear
What is Thelarche?
Onset of female breast development
What is virilization?
- Biological development of sex differences
- Changes that make a male body diff from female body
- These changes are produced by androgens
What is the challenge when completing an HPI for an endocrine problem?
- a pt may harbor more than one endocrinopathy which could be overlooked if subtle historical and clinical cues are over looked
- don't be in a hurry w/ your hx
What does male development require?
Normal function of hypothalamic - testicular axis.
Amenorrhea is an important clue in the breakdown of what?
Hypothalamic - pituitary - ovarian axis
What is the diagnosis of too much growth hormones in an adult pt?
Amenorrhea + galactorrhea w/ elevated prolactin levels suggest what?
What are the steps of HPI?
- radiologic imaging
What are complaints of an older pt with hyperthyroidism?
- weight loss
What are complaints of an younger pt with hyperthyroidism?
- Temperature intolerance
What are sxs of hypothyroidism?
- Mild weight gain or difficulty loosing weight
What would indicate thyroiditis?
Recent viral illness presenting w/ trouble swallowing and tender thyroid
A female pt presenting with recurrent vaginal candidiasis or pt with recurrent UTI should be evaluated for what?
Describe the onset of type 2 DM?
Gradually slower onset of sxs
What is the onset of type 1 DM and sxs?
- blurred vision
- Frequent infections
- Non-healing ulcers
- Numb or painful extremities