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Flashcards in E1. Gallbladder and pancreas Deck (45):
1

What is the purpose of the gallbladder?

What is the purpose of the bile ducts?

Whatis the purpose of the common bile duct? D

Gallbladder: store, concentrates and releases bile.

Bile ducts: Carry bile from different lobules of the liver.

Common bile duct: carry bile to intestine.

2

What is bile made of?

Water, cholesterol, bile acids, Billirubin, inorganic ions, and a variety of other constituents.

3

What does bile do?

Necessary for digestion of dietary fat. Excretory route for various metabolites and drugs. Buffers to neutralize acid pH from the stomach.

4

Look at slides 3 – 4.

Bullshit

5

What are the lesions of the biliary system? (8)

• Gallbladder distension
• Gall bladder stones (choleliths)
• Biliary obstruction
• Rupture of the biliary tract or the gall bladder
• Gall bladder edema
• Gall bladder mucosal hyperplasia
• Inflammation:
– Cholangitis
– Cholecystitis
• Neoplasia (rare)

6

Gallbladder distention is the common result of what?

What can also cause this?
Slide 6pictures

Common result of fasting.

Lantana camera toxicosis.

7

Look at slide 7.

couldn't figure out how to ask questions

8

What is the cause of biliary obstruction?

What is the result of biliary obstruction?

Causes: cholangitis, parasites or fibrosis, cholelithiasis (gall stones)

Result: post hepatic jaundice, hepatic atrophy and biliary fibrosis

9

Look at slide number 9

Not questionable

10

What is the common causes of gallbladder edema?

Right heart failure and infectious canine hepatitis (ICH)
slide 10 picture

11

What is another name for inflammation of the gallbladder?A

Cholecystitis

12

Can Cholecystitis be acute or chronic?

What causes the fibrinous Cholecystitis?

What causes hemorrhagic Cholecystitis?

Yes it can be both.

Seen in calves with acute salmonellosis and yersiniosis

13

Where (animals and organs) will you see gallbladder mucosal hyperplasia?
What is this associated with?

Old dogs and less in pigs and Cats. affects the walls of the gallbladder and the bile ducts.

May be associated with mucocele.

Look at slide 12

14

Look at slide 13 (pictures) and 14-15, slides 17-18 (pancreas function)

A

15

How is the exocrine pancreas like/unlike the liver?

It's like the liver that has a large functional reserve.
It's unlike the liver in regenerative capacity. Its regenerative capacity is very limited compared to the liver.

16

What are the are the clinical signs associated with pancreatic disease? (3)

With acute pancreatitis was the main clinical signs?

– Steatorrhea
– Diarrhea
– Weight loss despite polyphagia.

Abdominal pain
look at slide 20 picture

17

What are the two developmental abnormalities incidental findings?

– Anomalous tail
– Ectopic pancreas
Slide 21

18

Look at slide 22 unable to think of questions.

Also picture

19

In what animal does pancreatic hypoplasia occur?

What is pancreatic hypoplasia?

What is the name for this if it's found in a dog?A

– Calves

-Defect of the acinar tissue; the islet cell tissue may be quantitatively and qualitatively normal.

– Pancreatic atrophy

20

What breed is most likely to have juvenile pancreatic atrophy?

Look at slide 24 more info.

German shepherds

21

Look at slide 26 – 27.

…….……………..

22

When will you see multifocal pancreatic degeneration and necrosis?

What type of intoxication's might also be responsible?S

It is seen in systemic infections, particularly due to epithelialotrophic viruses.

Intoxication: mycotoxins, zinc toxicity.

23

What are some synonyms for acute pancreatitis?

Acute pancreatic necrosis, acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis.

24

Acute pancreatitis is an important disease for who/what?

Dogs, cats, and human beings.
Slide 30 is a picture

25

Look at slide 31-34 is the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis.

.......................

26

What does acute pancreatitis look like?

• Chalky-white areas of fat necrosis (saponification of necrotic adipose tissue).
• The peritoneal cavity contains blood stained fluid with fat droplets.
slide 35 has a picture

27

Look at slide 36 is that histological appearance

I don't think that will be too important

28

What is the cause of chronic pancreatitis and dogs?

Usually due to repeated mild episodes of acute pancreatitis

29

What arethe characterizations of pancreatitis?

Fibrosis, parenchymal atrophy and chronic inflammation.

30

What regions of the world of fungal infections (phycomycosis) caused marked scirrhous reaction, often indistinguishable from pancreatic carcinoma.

Warm humid regions

31

Slide 38 – 39 are pictures.

……

32

What is chronic pancreatitis secondary to the horses?

-- Parasitic migration (Strongylus equinus)
– Ascending bacterial infection
– Chronic eosinophilic gastroenteritis

slide 40 has a picture

33

Read slide 41. I couldn't think of a way to make a question

.

34

What are pancreatic calculi made of?

Calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate

35

Where would you incidentally find pancreatic lithiasis? (animal)

Cattle over 4 yrs of age

*is rare in other species

36

In what animals is nodular hyperplasia a common incidental finding?

Old dogs, cats and cattle.

37

What does pancreatic hyperplasia involve?

Exocrine tissue only, occurs in many foci, and may involve lobules or only portions of them.

38

What is it hard to differentiate pancreatic nodular hyperplasia from?

Exocrine pancreatic adenoma

39

look at:
Slide 44 is a picture
Slide 45 is a gross and histiologic description of pancreatic hyperplasia and a picture.

.

40

What are the two forms of pancreatic neoplasia? (basic)

Benign (Adenoma)
malignant:
– primary (pancreatic adenocarcinoma)
– secondary (metastasis)

41

How often do you see pancreatic adenomas?

It's extremely rare, and occasionally seen in old cats.
Look at slide 47 for more info.

42

Which of these is a malignant cancer of the pancreas?
A. Lymphosarcoma
B. Pancreatic adenoma
C. Melanoma
D. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma
E. two of the above

D. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma

43

Where are pancreatic adenocarcinomas mainly seen?

Dogs and cats.

44

What is the pancreatic adenocarcinomas gross appearance?

May be more or less spherical and circumscribed, or it may have some resemblance to masses of scar tissue.

45

Look at slides 49 to 50.

Couldn't think of any questions, and 50 is a picture. T