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Flashcards in MB. Alimentary Tract Deck (40):

Name the 4 Portals of Entry of pathogenic agents.

 Ingestion (most common)
 Coughed up by the lungs and swallowed
 Systemic hematogenous route
 Migration through the body (parasites)


Name the defense mechanisms (9)

 Saliva
 Resident flora and fauna
 Gastric pH
 Secreted immunoglobulins
 Vomiting
 Intestinal proteolytic enzymes
 Phagocytes and other effector cells within the mucosa/ submucosa
 High rate of epithelial turnover
 Increased peristalsis resulting in diarrhea


Name 2 Congenital anomalies found in commonly in calves.

Cleft palate (palatoschisis) and cleft lip (“harelip”- cheiloschisis). Both can be present at the same time.


What causes Cleft palate (palatoschisis) and cleft lip (“harelip”- cheiloschisis)?

Often a genetic disorder but toxins (e.g. ingestion of Veratrum californicum and other teratogenic plants like lupines, poison hemlock in cattle & sheep) or maternal exposure to drugs during pregnancy (griseofulvin in queens and mares; steroids in primates).


What is dental attrition?

Loss of tooth structure caused by mastication


What is Periodontal disease?

Resident bacterial films and the acid and enzymes they produce lead to enamel, gingival and periodontal ligament damage.
 Dental plaque
 Dental calculus (tartar -> mineralized dental plaque)


What is the main disease of the tongue?

Actinobacillosis (Actinobacillus lignieresii) -> chronic stomatitis – the tongue is often involved


What is Thrush (Candidiasis)?
What causes it?

It is caused by Candidaspp.(eg.C.albicans), and often is observed in young animals treated with antibiotics for long periods of time, or animals with underlying debilitating diseases.


What is a vesicle?

a raised lesion (up to 1 cm in the largest dimension) filled with clear (serous) fluid located within the epithelium or between the epithelium and lamina propria.


What can you rule out if you see a vesicle in the oral cavity of dogs & cats?

immune-mediated diseases


What is the pathogenesis of viral vesicular stomatitides?

slide 28


What is the pathogenesis of foot and mouth disease (FMD)?

Virus ingestion/ inhalation
-> pharynx -> viremia -> Oral mucosa & epidermal sites -> lesions develop in areas subjected to mechanical injury


Gingival hyperplasia is found in __________ dogs, and is a type of ___-_______ proliferation lesions of the Oral cavity.



Primary diseases of the tongue are rare, but there is one exception name it.



In what type (age,health...) can you find to thrush (Candidiasis)?

Is often observed in young animals treated with antibiotics for long periods of time, or animals with underlying debilitating diseases


What the clinical signs of a cat with chronic gingivo-stomatitis?

Oral pain, dysphagia, weight loss


Chronic ulcerative (lympho-plasmacytic) paradental stomatitis common in?

Older dogs


If you see a vesicle on the world cavity of a dog or cat what are the two things you should think of? (One is cats specific)

– rule out immune mediated diseases
– In cats they're often result of the click virus infection


If a vesicle is found in food/large animals what should be ruled out?

Rule out major viral diseases which are usually nonfatal but resulting huge economic losses.


What animals will you see foot and mouth disease? what virus causes this disease?

Ruminants and pigs. You will not see it in horses.


What animals will you see this secular stomatitis? Give the virus.

Ruminants, pig, and horses.Rhabdovirus


What animals will you see this secular Exanthema of swine? Give the virus responsible.

Only pigs. Calicivirus


What animals will you see swine the secular disease in? Give the virus responsible.

Only pigs. Enterovirus


What is congenital megaesophagus?

Is dilation of the esophagus it can be either congenital or secondary


What can megaesophagus lead to?

Aspiration pneumonia which is the main cause death.


What animal is megaesophagus most common in?

Dogs (German Shepherd)


Define ruminal tympany/bloat.

Is over distention of the rumen and reticulum by gas produced during fermentation.


What is primary bloat in cattle associated with?

It's often associated with new diets that promote fermentation of stable foam.


What is secondary bloat in cattle associated with?

It's caused by physical or functional obstruction of the esophagus resulting in failure to eructate.


Gastric dilation – volvulus is a life-threatening condition most commonly found in ___ ___ ___.

Large deep chested breeds of dogs. It is also observed in sows.


In what animal do you see a abomasal displacement most commonly? What side is more common?

It's more common in post-parturient dairy cows and calves. It is more common to find it on the left side versus the right side.
Right-sided abomasal displacement is 15%, of that 20% results in an abomasal volvulus.


Would you expect to see in an animal with abomasal displacement?

Abdominal pain, elevated heart rate, anorexia, dehydration, depressed personal system with the lack feces and abomasal tympany (high pitch pain elicited by percussion).


Where would you see a gastric ulceration?

It's seen in pigs fed finally ground rations.


What can cause gastric ulcers?

Stressful conditions. It can also be seen in young animals. Lesions are usually subclinical. It can also be associated with NSAIDs.


What can cause a gastric ulcer in a horse?

Colic can lead to ulceration because of dehydration and NSAIDs.


What is atresia coli?

most common segmental anomaly of the intestine of domestic animals. Marked abdominal distention.


What is responsible for causing local symmetrical encephalomalacia(FSE)?

C. perfringens type D


With bacteria is responsible for tyzzer's disease?

Clostridium piliforme


What bacteria is responsible for colitis x?

Clostridium difficile.


What causes swine dysentery?

Brachyspira hyodysenteriae