Mini block 2 Flashcards Preview

Path 2 > Mini block 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mini block 2 Deck (176):
1

What is arteriosclerosis?(Look at slide 43/1)

It is a generic term applied to the thickening and the loss of elasticity of arterial walls.

2

What is the most important pattern of arteriosclerosis and what is it characterized by?

Atherosclerosis is the most important pattern of arteriosclerosis and is characterized by the presence of atheromas (or atheromatous (fibrofatty) plaques) within the intima and media. These plaques contain cholesterol and other lipids.

3

What is a possible cause of arteriosclerosis in a dog?

Hypothyroidism

4

Look at slide 44/1

.

5

What is an atrial rupture commonly the result of?(Slide 45/1)

Physical trauma

6

Fatal rupture of the uterine artery during parturition occurs occasionally in aged mares with low serum___levels.

Copper

7

What can lead to rupture of the internal carotid artery in horses with guttural mycosis?(Look at slide 45/1 for more information)

Mitotic vasculitis

8

Where can dissecting aneurysms be found in young male racing greyhounds? What can this lead to?

Found in the coronary and renal arteries and can lead to arterial rupture.

9

What are the three things involved in the Virchow triad?

Abnormal blood flow, hypercoagulability, endothelial injury

10

Look at slide 53/1

.

11

List the five pathological processes in order from most common to least common. (Endocrine system set 2)

– disorders of growth
– degeneration/necrosis
– inflammation and repair
– deposits and pigmentation's
– circulatory disorders

12

What are some signs that can lead to possible diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma? (5)

– Bilaterally symmetrical alopecia
– Polyphagia
– PU/PD
– Potbelly
– Stinks

13

What are two conditions with hyperadrenocorticism that can contribute to a dog stinking?

Urinary tract infection

14

What is the cause of Conns syndrome in a cat?

Hyperaldosteronism

15

What animal is more common to see Cushing's disease in?

Adult or aged dogs
*rare in And other animals

16

What is Cushing's disease most commonly associated with?

Functional corticotroph (ACTH secretion) pituitary adenoma
*only responsible to 10 to 15% of Cushing's syndrome cases and dogs.

17

What are the causes of a pendulous abdomen (potbelly appearance)? (3) (referring to Cushing's disease)

– Hepatomegaly
– muscle atrophy
– redistribution of fat (obesity)

18

What might be associated with hepatomegaly? (Visual appearance of liver is pale and can float)

Hepatic lipidosis or glycogen deposition

19

What are the effects of excess cortisol caused by Cushing's disease?(7)

Hepatomegaly, hypertension, immunosuppression, poor wound healing, muscle atrophy, PU/PDA, epidermal and follicular atrophy. (Look at slide 20)

20

What is calcitonis cutis associated with?

Cushing's disease

21

What type of change is nodular adrenocortical hyperplasia?
A. Adenoma
B. Adenocarcinoma
C. Senile change
D. Change of scenery
E. Cushing's disease

C. Senile change

22

What are the 3 important things to know about corticotroph adenomas?

They are active, benign tumors that secrete ACTH.

23

Where are most pituitary adenomas found in the horse?

Pars intermedia

24

What are the signs of PPID and the horse? (6)

– failure to shed
– PU/PD
– polyphagia
– hyperhidrosis
– insulin resistance
– abnormal fat deposition

25

In a horse do you expect to see adrenocortical hyperplasia?

Not really, but it depends if the gland is secreting ACTH.

26

Why is PPID a horse different from Cushing's disease in a dog?

Because the cause of PPID and a horse is due to the hypothalamus squash. As where a dog is due to an adenoma.

27

What are some causes of bilateral adrenocortical atrophy? (2)

– Primary/idiopathic atrophy following limphocytic adrenalitis (immune mediated).
– Secondary (iatrogenic, loss of anterior pituitary)

28

How do you differentiate pheochromocytoma from an adrenocortical neoplasm?

Pheochromocytomas don't produce steroids and won't have a yellow color to them. But the best way to differentiate the two is histologically through a microscope.

29

look at slides 55 and 56/2 for summary/review of information.

.

30

What are your clinical signs for hypothyroidism?

Lethargy, weight gain, heatseeking, low libido, infertility, abortion, anestrus. Skin (nonpruritic bilaterally symmetrical alopecia)

31

What is a possible cause of goiter?

Iodine deficient diet

32

What are the things that can decrease your T4 (or increase TSH)? (4)

• Iodine deficient diet
• Goiterogenic substances ‐ interfere with production of T4/Tg
• Congenital dyshormonogenic goiter – autosomal recessive defects in enzymes required to make Tg
• Excess dietary iodide

33

What is needed for hyperplasia of the thyroid gland? When does this occur?

TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). Increased TSH occurs when T4 is low, due to loss of the back inhibition.

34

True or false: Fish can get goiters.

True

35

Look at slide for Dr. dennis material. I'm not making anymore questions for her stuff.

.

36

Where is the upper respiratory tract generally located?

Located outside thoracic cavity.

37

What is in the conducting system?
What cells primarily line this system?(5/4)

Includes the
nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, larynx, trachea and bronchi.
The mucosa of this system
is primarily lined by pseudostratified ciliated epithelium and goblet cells.

38

What makes up the transitional system and what cells line it?(6/4)

consists exclusively of bronchioles which are lined by Clara cells (detoxification of
xenobiotics), non-ciliated secretory cells and only a few ciliated cells. Healthy bronchioles do not have goblet cells.

39

What makes up the Exchange system and what cells line it?(7/4)

Composed of alveolar ducts and millions of alveoli; thin-walled structures enveloped by a rich network of capillaries, the pulmonary capillaries.
Alveoli are lined by epithelial type I (membranous) and type II (granular) pneumocytes (also called pneumonocytes).

40

T or F: The lungs have dual blood supply. (8/4)

True

41

What is the respiratory system involved in? (6)

Gas exchange, phonation, olfaction, temperature regulation, acid–base balance, blood pressure regulation.

42

What portion of the respiratory system is considered to be sterile? (12/4)

The distal portion of the respiratory tract is considered to be sterile.

43

What are two examples of normal flora in the respiratory tract that are considered to be potentially pathogenic?

Mannheimia haemolytica, Bordetella bronchiseptica.

44

Look at slide 15/4

.

45

What are the two categories of defense mechanisms of the respiratory system?

Nonspecific (non-immune mediated) and specific (immune mediated)

46

Which of the following is not considered to be a nonspecific (non-immune mediated) defense mechanism? (Slide 16/4)
A. Mucous trapping
B. Antibiotic production
C. Mucociliary clearance (Mucociliary escalator)
D. Phagocytosis
E. Air turbulence (generated by coughing and sneezing)

B. Antibiotic production

47

List the three specific (immune mediated) defense mechanisms.

– Antibiotic production
– Antibody mediated phagocytosis
– Cell mediated immunity

48

What are PIMs and PAMs?

PAMs:Pulmonary alveolar macrophages
PIMs:pulmonary intravascular macrophages

49

What are the factors known to predispose an animal/human to bacterial pneumonia? (7) (19/4)

– Viruses
– stress
– dehydration
– pulmonary edema
– uremia
– ammonia
– immunosuppression/immunodeficiency

50

Look at slides 20 – 22/4

.

51

What is the cause of epistaxis in horses?
(23/4)

Ethmoidal Hematoma

52

In what animal will you see Ethmoidal Hematoma? (age not exact)

It is seen in older horses

53

What is the cause of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis? (24/4)

Bovine herpes virus 1

54

Slide 25 – 27/4 pictures

.

55

What causes atrophic rhinitiss in pigs?

It is a multi-factorial disease in growing pigs. Thought to be a combination of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida types D and A.

56

What do the cytotoxins produced by the toxigenic strain of P. multocida do to the nasal turbinates?
What area is most commonly affected by this? (30/4 picture)

The cytotoxin's inhibit osteoblast activity and promote osteoclast thick reabsorption of the nasal turbinates.

The ventral scroll of the ventral nasal turbinates is the area most commonly and consistently affected.

57

What is responsible for inclusion body rhinitiss in pigs? How old are the pigs that are affected by this disease?

Suid herpesvirus 2 (SHV – 2)
Pigs 3 to 5 weeks of age are usually affected.

58

What are two clinical signs you would see associated with feline herpesvirus 1?
What is the name of this disease? (32/4)

Rhinitis and conjunctivitis.
It is known as feline viral rhinotracheitis.

59

What is responsible for vesicular glossitis? (33-36/4)

Feline calicivirus.(FCV)

60

What might you see with FCV? (35/4)

Mild oculonasal discharge in addition to vesicular and ulcerative stomatitis - diffuse interstitial pneumonia may also occur.

61

What is the cause of granulomatous rhinitis in a dog? (37/4)

Rhinosporidium seeberi (aquatic protistan parasite)

62

What are the three conditions that can affected the guttural pouch in horses?
Look at slides 38 – 44/4

– Guttural pouch tympany
– strangles (Streptococcus equi)
– guttural pouch mycosis

63

What causes guttural pouch mycosis?

Caused by infection with Aspergillus fumigatus or other Aspergillus species.

64

What causes strangles in horses?

Streptococcus equi

65

What does guttural pouch mycosis effect? (Nerves, other) (45/4)

– Involvement of cranial nerves (VII, IX, X, XI, XII) is common and result in a variety of clinical signs.

66

Look at slides 46 – 50 pictures

.

67

Which stains are used in identifying a guttural pouch mycosis histologically?

GMS (Gomori’s methenamine silver) stain and PAS (Periodic Acid Shiff) stain.
*PAS is the one he preached.

68

Look at slide 56-58/4

.

69

In which of the following can you see tracheal collapse? (Select all that apply)
A. Toy/miniature dog breeds
B. Cats
C. Horses
D. Cattle
E. Goats

A. Toy/miniature dog breeds
C. Horses
D. Cattle
E. Goats

70

In a horse/pony what might a Dorso-ventral flattening of the trachea and concomitant widening of the dorsal tracheal membrane result in?

Coughing and exercise intolerance.

71

What plays a primary role in canine infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough)? (63/4)

Bordetella bronchiseptica

72

Look at slide 64/4

.

73

What contributes to lower airway obstruction in recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, heaves)?

Mucus accumulation

74

In recurrent airway obstruction clinical signs are caused by resistance to airflow in the lung because of diffuse bronchoconstriction. During what season is this the worst in horses and why?

They are usually worst in winter when horses stay housed indoors and the ventilation of barns is not optimal.

75

What composes the blood-air barrier? (68/4)

Composed of the vascular endothelium, basement membrane of the endothelial cell, basement membrane of the type I pneumocyte and the cytoplasm of the of the type I pneumocyte.

76

What is a common condition in race horses? (It's a circulatory disturbance)(69/4 look at more info)

Exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH)

77

Epistaxis and pulmonary hemorrhage are relatively common in cattle with what? (70/4)

Vena cava thrombosis

78

What are the 3 main pathogenic mechanisms of pulmonary edema?(Pictures 75 – 79/4)

Increase in hydrostatic pressure (cardiogenic edema).
2. Increased vascular permeability: Injury to the blood-air barrier.
3. Obstruction to the lymphatic drainage: Neoplasia involving thoracic lymph nodes or vessels.

79

Look at slide 79/4

.

80

Define atelectasis.

Incomplete expansion of the lungs or portions of the lungs.

81

How will atelectic(atelectasis) lungs appear? (Color, consistency, etc.)

Pulmonary parenchyma appears dark red and sunken in comparison to the aerated lung. Consistency is fleshy and that the lung tissue does not float (will sink if placed in water).

82

What are the four different types of atelectasis?

Congenital, acquired, compressive, and massive.

83

What can cause compressive atelectasis and give 3 examples.

It is caused by space occupying lesions. In some examples are hydrothorax, hemothorax, and pleuritis.

84

Give an example of massive atelectasis.

Pneumothorax

85

Where are you most likely to find pulmonary atelectasis?

Bovine fetus; also in stillborn animals.

86

What is meconium?

It is the dark green mucilaginous material in the intestine of a full term fetus. It is a mixture of secretions from intestinal glands and amniotic fluid.

87

What is Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS)?

It is meconium described in human babies.

88

Look at slide 85/4

.

89

What is pulmonary emphysema?

Permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchial, accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls.

It is thought to be an imbalance between proteases and anti-proteases (like Alpha1 anti-trypsin)-> neutrophil derived serine proteases, particularly elastase and matrix metalloproteninases from a variety of sources are the likely culprits. Their concentrations are enhanced by neutrophil and macrophage activation induced in chronic bronchitis.

90

Why is a emphysematous lung (pulmonary emphysema) consider to be dysfunctional?

The loss of alveolar septa reduces the alveolar surface area-> reduction in gas exchange.

91

Pulmonary emphysema in animals is always ______ to obstruction of outflow of air or agonal at slaughter.

Secondary

92

Pulmonary emphysema is frequent in animals with what?

Bronchopneumonia

93

What is bronchopneumonia?

Airflow imbalance-> the volume of air entering the lungs exceeds the volume exiting the lung during expiration.

94

What can pulmonary emphysema be classified as? (2)
Which is mainly associated with cattle?

Alveolar or interstitial.

Interstitial

95

What is bolus emphysema?
If a rupture happens what could happen?

Large focal air-filled spaces (bullae)

Rupture may lead to fatal pneumothorax.
*complication of emphysema

96

What is another name for pulmonary edema emphysema in cattle?

Fog fever

97

Look at slides 2 – 3/5

.

98

What is responsible for causing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)?

Bovine herpes virus 1

99

What is parainfluenza 3 virus (PI – 3 virus) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) responsible for causing? (Look at slide 4/5)

Transient rhinotracheitis and broncho-interstitial pneumonia.

100

What two viruses should be considered in cabs with necrotizing bronchiolitis?

BRSV & PI-3 virus

101

How are viral pneumonias in cattle diagnosed?

Diagnosis is confirmed by virus isolation, PCR or detection of viral antigens by fluorescence antibody test (FAT) or immunohistochemistry (IHC).

102

What is responsible for causing bovine enzootic pneumonia (chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia)? (7)

Mycoplasmas, Chlamydophila, Pasteurella multocida, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica and E.coli.

103

Calves with what are highly susceptible to bronchopneumonia?

Calves with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD)

104

What does bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) do?

Prevents the migration of neutrophils from the capillary in calves.

105

What are common sequelas of chronic suppurative pneumonia?(2)

Abscessation and bronchiectasis

106

What is responsible for causing shipping fever (penumonic mannheimiosis)?

Mannheimia haemolytica (formerly Pasteurella haemolytica= pneumonic pasteurellosis).

107

What is considered to be the most economically important respiratory disease of cattle (particularly feedlot cattle) in North America?

penumonic mannheimiosis (shipping fever)

108

What might you see in cases of penumonic mannheimiosis in the pulmonary parenchyma?(12/5)

Marbling appearance.

109

What type of Mannheimia haemolytica is responsible for the severe pulmonary lesions (areas of necrosis etc.) seen in penumonic mannheimiosis?

Biotype A, serotype 1

110

What can Histophilus somni cause?

May cause suppurative or fibrinous bronchopneumonia.

*The later may be undistinguishable from the fibrinous bronchopneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica.

111

What is an important cause of chronic respiratory disease in North America feedlot cattle?

Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia.

112

What is characteristic of Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia?
What else can Mycoplasma bovis cause?

Chronic, necrotizing bronchopneumonia

severe chronic fibrinous arthritis.

113

Pictures 15 – 17/5

.

114

What causes bovine tuberculosis?

Mycoplasma bovis

115

What other animals can Mycoplasma bovis affect that could lead to outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis?

Deer, elk, and bison.
*Generally wild ruminants.

116

Were you most likely to see lesions involved with bovine tuberculosis?

retropharyngeal lymph nodes, lungs, thoracic and mesenteric lymph nodes.

117

True or false:
Lesions in cervids often contain prominent suppurative exudate and may resemble abscesses.

True.

118

What can cause verminous bronchitis/pneumonia in cattle?

Dictyocaulus viviparus
*Varies from interstitial pneumonia (larval migration) to chronic bronchitis (intrabronchial adult parasites) to granulomatous pneumonia (eggs, dead larvae).

119

What can cause verminous bronchitis/pneumonia in sheep, goats & equids?

Dictyocaulus filaria –sheep, goats Dictyocaulus arnfieldi –equids (horses, donkeys)

120

Look at the slides 21 – 23/5

.

121

What are Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP) of cattle?

Pneumonias that did not fit any of the “classical” forms of pneumonia.

122

What characterize Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP) of cattle? (Look at slide 24/5 for more information)

Characterized by the presence of edema, interstitial emphysema, hyaline membranes, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia and interstitial fibrosis with cellular infiltrates.

123

What are they common syndromes known as atypical interstitial pneumonias? (5)

–Bovine pulmonary edema and emphysema (fog fever)
– extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)
– reinfection syndrome (hypersensitivity to Dictyocaulus sp. or BRSV)
– milk allergy
– ingestion of moldy potatoes

124

What type of hypersensitivity is associated with milk allergy in cows?

Type I hypersensitivity. Sensitivity is to milk casein and lactalbumin.

125

Why Ingestion of moldy potatoes causes atypical interstitial pneumonia?

contain 4-ipomeanol which is metabolized by mixed function oxydases in the lung (Clara cells) to a potent pneumotoxicant.

126

Look at slide 27/5 for the cause of fog fever

.

127

When and where is extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) found? What type of hypersensitivity?

Seen in adult dairy cattle during the winter.
Type III hypersensitivity reaction.

128

What is the gross appearance of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)? (Slide 28/5 for more information)

Gross lesions vary from subtle gray subpleural foci of granulomatous inflammation to severe lesions in which the lungs acquire a “meaty appearance” due to alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis.

129

Look at slide 29/5 for pathogenesis of toxic and allergic pneumonia (AIP) in cattle

.

130

What is Maedi (maedi-visna)?

Lifelong, persistent disease of sheep.

131

True or false:
You can find Maedi (maedi-visna) in Australia and New Zealand.

False. You can find in most countries with the EXCEPTION of Australia and New Zealand.

132

What is another name for Maedi (maedi-visna)?

It is also known as Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP).

133

What causes Maedi (maedi-visna)?

It is caused by a retrovirus of the lentivirus subfamily (ovine lentivirus) similar to the agent of CAE. Infection results in a lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP). The virus may also cause a non-suppurative encephalitis (Visna), lymphocytic arthritis, lymphofollicular mastitis and vasculitis.

134

What are the characteristics of Maedi (maedi-visna)? (Slide 30/5)

Maedi is characterized by dyspnea and an insidious slowly progressive emaciation despite good appetite.

135

True or false: chronic enzootic pneumonia is a multi-factorial disease that is often fatal.

False. It is rarely fatal

136

What is the age you will see chronic enzootic pneumonia in sheep?

Younger than one-year-old.

137

What are the causes of chronic enzootic pneumonia? (8)

Mannheimia haemolytica,
Pasteurella multocida, PI-3, adenovirus, reovirus, RSV, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasmas (mycoplasma ovipneumoniae)

138

Look at slide 32-33/5

.

139

What are the two important viral pneumonias in horses worldwide?

Equine viral rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1, EHV- 4) and equine influenza

140

What diseases/viruses can cause viral pneumonias in horses? (4) (Look at slide 34/5 for more information)

Equine viral rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1, EHV- 4) and equine influenza, equine viral arteritis (EVA) virus and equine adenovirus.

141

What bacteria is often involved in secondary bacterial pneumonia?(5)

P. Multocida, Streptococcus spp., E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Rhodococcus equi

142

What is Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) virus, and what causes it?

Sporadic pansystemic disease of foals and horses caused by Arterivirus.

143

What may result from Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)?

May result in interstitial pneumonia with vasculitis, pulmonary edema, hydrothorax and hydroperitoneum.

144

Look at slide 36/5(unlikely to be on exam, but still should know)

.

145

Pictures slide 37-40

.

146

Interstitial pneumonia due to adenovirus or Pneumocystis carinii Infection are common complication
in ______ _____ with SCID (Inherited disorder- autosomal recessive trait- characterized by what?

Do these animals live long? (Look at slide 38 for more info)

-Arabian foals
-Lack of B and T lymphocytes

147

Look at slide 41-42/5

.

148

True or false:
R. equi can infect people undergoing immunosuppression (AIDS, chemotherapy, therapeutically-induced immunosuppression because of organ transplantation).

True.

149

pictures slide 44-46/5(has some info on pics look at)

.

150

What are the 4 causes of viral pneumonias in pigs?

- Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)
- Swine Influenza
- Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)
- Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus (PRCV)

151

What are the characteristics of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)?late-term abortions, stillbirths and respiratory disease in young pigs (interstitial pneumonia)? (3)

- Late-term abortions
- Stillbirths
- Respiratory disease in young pigs (interstitial pneumonia)

152

What is the cause of Swine Influenza?

What are the characteristics of Swine Influenza?

Resulted from adaptation of the type A influenza virus that caused the pandemic of human influenza during World War I.

Characteristics: Low mortality unless complicated with secondary bacterial infections.

*H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009.

153

What can Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) cause?
What is responsible for this syndrome? (virus)

Causes progressive emaciation in weaned pigs. It also may result in interstitial pneumonia.


The causative agent is PCV-2.

154

What does Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus (PRCV) cause?

Sporadic cause of mild bronchointerstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis.

155

slide 48-53 pictures w/ info look at.

.

156

In pigs w/ PRRS & PMWS what is a common infection? (Bacteria?)

Pneumocystis carinii

157

What is the main pathogen involved in enzootic pneumonia in pigs?
What can influence this dz infectivity?
What are its characteristics? (slide 49/5 more info)

- Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

- Influenced by immune status and management factors such as crowding, poor ventilation, humidity and temperature fluctuation in the barns.

- The disease is characterized by low mortality unless complicated with secondary pathogens.

158

What causes porcine contagious pleuropneumonia?

actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

159

What age of pigs can come down with porcine contagious pleuropneumonia?

2 to 5 months of age

160

What portion of the lung is affected by porcine contagious pleuropneumonia?

Dorsal area of the caudal lung lobe are often affected.

161

What are the characteristics of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia?

With the exception of the distribution do lesions look similar to in cattle?

Lesions are severe and characterized by hemorrhage, necrosis and thrombosis.

They look similar to those of pneumonic mannheimiosis.

162

Slide 55/5 pictures

.

163

True or false: pneumonias are not as common in dogs as in food producing animals.

True

164

What are the two most common infectious pneumonias in dogs?

Infectious tracheobronchitis (Kennel cough) and canine distemper are the most common.

165

Where the two most common noninfectious pneumonias in dogs?

Uremia and paraquat (widely used herbicide) toxicity are most common.

166

Look at slide 57/5

.

167

Pictures slide 58 – 62/5

.

168

True or false: In cats pneumonias are common and upper respiratory infections are rare.(63/5)

False. Upper respiratory infections are common in the menus are rare.

169

Pictures slide 64 – 65/5

.

170

What are the intermediate hosts for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?

Snails and slugs

171

Of the following which domestic animal is pulmonary neoplasia most commonly found in? (66/5)
A. Dogs
B. Cats
C. Cattle
D. Horses
E. 2 of the above

E. 2 of the above (A & B)

172

True or false: (pulmonary adenomatosis) ovine pulmonary carcinoma (Seen in mature sheep) can be found around the world but not in New Zealand or Australia.

True

173

What is the cause of ovine pulmonary carcinoma?

Transmissible retrovirus

174

What is ovine pulmonary carcinoma?

Disease mainly seen in mature sheep. Slowly progressive signs of respiratory disease lead to death after several months of the initial onset of respiratory signs.

175

Look at slide 69/5

.

176

Pictures slide 70 – 81 (minimal information but look at slides)

.