Flashcards in Mini block 2 Deck (176):
What is arteriosclerosis?(Look at slide 43/1)
It is a generic term applied to the thickening and the loss of elasticity of arterial walls.
What is the most important pattern of arteriosclerosis and what is it characterized by?
Atherosclerosis is the most important pattern of arteriosclerosis and is characterized by the presence of atheromas (or atheromatous (fibrofatty) plaques) within the intima and media. These plaques contain cholesterol and other lipids.
What is a possible cause of arteriosclerosis in a dog?
Look at slide 44/1
What is an atrial rupture commonly the result of?(Slide 45/1)
Fatal rupture of the uterine artery during parturition occurs occasionally in aged mares with low serum___levels.
What can lead to rupture of the internal carotid artery in horses with guttural mycosis?(Look at slide 45/1 for more information)
Where can dissecting aneurysms be found in young male racing greyhounds? What can this lead to?
Found in the coronary and renal arteries and can lead to arterial rupture.
What are the three things involved in the Virchow triad?
Abnormal blood flow, hypercoagulability, endothelial injury
Look at slide 53/1
List the five pathological processes in order from most common to least common. (Endocrine system set 2)
– disorders of growth
– inflammation and repair
– deposits and pigmentation's
– circulatory disorders
What are some signs that can lead to possible diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma? (5)
– Bilaterally symmetrical alopecia
What are two conditions with hyperadrenocorticism that can contribute to a dog stinking?
Urinary tract infection
What is the cause of Conns syndrome in a cat?
What animal is more common to see Cushing's disease in?
Adult or aged dogs
*rare in And other animals
What is Cushing's disease most commonly associated with?
Functional corticotroph (ACTH secretion) pituitary adenoma
*only responsible to 10 to 15% of Cushing's syndrome cases and dogs.
What are the causes of a pendulous abdomen (potbelly appearance)? (3) (referring to Cushing's disease)
– muscle atrophy
– redistribution of fat (obesity)
What might be associated with hepatomegaly? (Visual appearance of liver is pale and can float)
Hepatic lipidosis or glycogen deposition
What are the effects of excess cortisol caused by Cushing's disease?(7)
Hepatomegaly, hypertension, immunosuppression, poor wound healing, muscle atrophy, PU/PDA, epidermal and follicular atrophy. (Look at slide 20)
What is calcitonis cutis associated with?
What type of change is nodular adrenocortical hyperplasia?
C. Senile change
D. Change of scenery
E. Cushing's disease
C. Senile change
What are the 3 important things to know about corticotroph adenomas?
They are active, benign tumors that secrete ACTH.
Where are most pituitary adenomas found in the horse?
What are the signs of PPID and the horse? (6)
– failure to shed
– insulin resistance
– abnormal fat deposition
In a horse do you expect to see adrenocortical hyperplasia?
Not really, but it depends if the gland is secreting ACTH.
Why is PPID a horse different from Cushing's disease in a dog?
Because the cause of PPID and a horse is due to the hypothalamus squash. As where a dog is due to an adenoma.
What are some causes of bilateral adrenocortical atrophy? (2)
– Primary/idiopathic atrophy following limphocytic adrenalitis (immune mediated).
– Secondary (iatrogenic, loss of anterior pituitary)
How do you differentiate pheochromocytoma from an adrenocortical neoplasm?
Pheochromocytomas don't produce steroids and won't have a yellow color to them. But the best way to differentiate the two is histologically through a microscope.
look at slides 55 and 56/2 for summary/review of information.
What are your clinical signs for hypothyroidism?
Lethargy, weight gain, heatseeking, low libido, infertility, abortion, anestrus. Skin (nonpruritic bilaterally symmetrical alopecia)
What is a possible cause of goiter?
Iodine deficient diet
What are the things that can decrease your T4 (or increase TSH)? (4)
• Iodine deficient diet
• Goiterogenic substances ‐ interfere with production of T4/Tg
• Congenital dyshormonogenic goiter – autosomal recessive defects in enzymes required to make Tg
• Excess dietary iodide
What is needed for hyperplasia of the thyroid gland? When does this occur?
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). Increased TSH occurs when T4 is low, due to loss of the back inhibition.
True or false: Fish can get goiters.
Look at slide for Dr. dennis material. I'm not making anymore questions for her stuff.
Where is the upper respiratory tract generally located?
Located outside thoracic cavity.
What is in the conducting system?
What cells primarily line this system?(5/4)
nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, larynx, trachea and bronchi.
The mucosa of this system
is primarily lined by pseudostratified ciliated epithelium and goblet cells.
What makes up the transitional system and what cells line it?(6/4)
consists exclusively of bronchioles which are lined by Clara cells (detoxification of
xenobiotics), non-ciliated secretory cells and only a few ciliated cells. Healthy bronchioles do not have goblet cells.
What makes up the Exchange system and what cells line it?(7/4)
Composed of alveolar ducts and millions of alveoli; thin-walled structures enveloped by a rich network of capillaries, the pulmonary capillaries.
Alveoli are lined by epithelial type I (membranous) and type II (granular) pneumocytes (also called pneumonocytes).
T or F: The lungs have dual blood supply. (8/4)
What is the respiratory system involved in? (6)
Gas exchange, phonation, olfaction, temperature regulation, acid–base balance, blood pressure regulation.
What portion of the respiratory system is considered to be sterile? (12/4)
The distal portion of the respiratory tract is considered to be sterile.
What are two examples of normal flora in the respiratory tract that are considered to be potentially pathogenic?
Mannheimia haemolytica, Bordetella bronchiseptica.
Look at slide 15/4
What are the two categories of defense mechanisms of the respiratory system?
Nonspecific (non-immune mediated) and specific (immune mediated)
Which of the following is not considered to be a nonspecific (non-immune mediated) defense mechanism? (Slide 16/4)
A. Mucous trapping
B. Antibiotic production
C. Mucociliary clearance (Mucociliary escalator)
E. Air turbulence (generated by coughing and sneezing)
B. Antibiotic production
List the three specific (immune mediated) defense mechanisms.
– Antibiotic production
– Antibody mediated phagocytosis
– Cell mediated immunity
What are PIMs and PAMs?
PAMs:Pulmonary alveolar macrophages
PIMs:pulmonary intravascular macrophages
What are the factors known to predispose an animal/human to bacterial pneumonia? (7) (19/4)
– pulmonary edema
Look at slides 20 – 22/4
What is the cause of epistaxis in horses?
In what animal will you see Ethmoidal Hematoma? (age not exact)
It is seen in older horses
What is the cause of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis? (24/4)
Bovine herpes virus 1
Slide 25 – 27/4 pictures
What causes atrophic rhinitiss in pigs?
It is a multi-factorial disease in growing pigs. Thought to be a combination of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida types D and A.
What do the cytotoxins produced by the toxigenic strain of P. multocida do to the nasal turbinates?
What area is most commonly affected by this? (30/4 picture)
The cytotoxin's inhibit osteoblast activity and promote osteoclast thick reabsorption of the nasal turbinates.
The ventral scroll of the ventral nasal turbinates is the area most commonly and consistently affected.
What is responsible for inclusion body rhinitiss in pigs? How old are the pigs that are affected by this disease?
Suid herpesvirus 2 (SHV – 2)
Pigs 3 to 5 weeks of age are usually affected.
What are two clinical signs you would see associated with feline herpesvirus 1?
What is the name of this disease? (32/4)
Rhinitis and conjunctivitis.
It is known as feline viral rhinotracheitis.
What is responsible for vesicular glossitis? (33-36/4)
What might you see with FCV? (35/4)
Mild oculonasal discharge in addition to vesicular and ulcerative stomatitis - diffuse interstitial pneumonia may also occur.
What is the cause of granulomatous rhinitis in a dog? (37/4)
Rhinosporidium seeberi (aquatic protistan parasite)
What are the three conditions that can affected the guttural pouch in horses?
Look at slides 38 – 44/4
– Guttural pouch tympany
– strangles (Streptococcus equi)
– guttural pouch mycosis
What causes guttural pouch mycosis?
Caused by infection with Aspergillus fumigatus or other Aspergillus species.
What causes strangles in horses?
What does guttural pouch mycosis effect? (Nerves, other) (45/4)
– Involvement of cranial nerves (VII, IX, X, XI, XII) is common and result in a variety of clinical signs.
Look at slides 46 – 50 pictures
Which stains are used in identifying a guttural pouch mycosis histologically?
GMS (Gomori’s methenamine silver) stain and PAS (Periodic Acid Shiff) stain.
*PAS is the one he preached.
Look at slide 56-58/4
In which of the following can you see tracheal collapse? (Select all that apply)
A. Toy/miniature dog breeds
A. Toy/miniature dog breeds
In a horse/pony what might a Dorso-ventral flattening of the trachea and concomitant widening of the dorsal tracheal membrane result in?
Coughing and exercise intolerance.
What plays a primary role in canine infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough)? (63/4)
Look at slide 64/4
What contributes to lower airway obstruction in recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, heaves)?
In recurrent airway obstruction clinical signs are caused by resistance to airflow in the lung because of diffuse bronchoconstriction. During what season is this the worst in horses and why?
They are usually worst in winter when horses stay housed indoors and the ventilation of barns is not optimal.
What composes the blood-air barrier? (68/4)
Composed of the vascular endothelium, basement membrane of the endothelial cell, basement membrane of the type I pneumocyte and the cytoplasm of the of the type I pneumocyte.
What is a common condition in race horses? (It's a circulatory disturbance)(69/4 look at more info)
Exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH)
Epistaxis and pulmonary hemorrhage are relatively common in cattle with what? (70/4)
Vena cava thrombosis
What are the 3 main pathogenic mechanisms of pulmonary edema?(Pictures 75 – 79/4)
Increase in hydrostatic pressure (cardiogenic edema).
2. Increased vascular permeability: Injury to the blood-air barrier.
3. Obstruction to the lymphatic drainage: Neoplasia involving thoracic lymph nodes or vessels.
Look at slide 79/4
Incomplete expansion of the lungs or portions of the lungs.
How will atelectic(atelectasis) lungs appear? (Color, consistency, etc.)
Pulmonary parenchyma appears dark red and sunken in comparison to the aerated lung. Consistency is fleshy and that the lung tissue does not float (will sink if placed in water).
What are the four different types of atelectasis?
Congenital, acquired, compressive, and massive.
What can cause compressive atelectasis and give 3 examples.
It is caused by space occupying lesions. In some examples are hydrothorax, hemothorax, and pleuritis.
Give an example of massive atelectasis.
Where are you most likely to find pulmonary atelectasis?
Bovine fetus; also in stillborn animals.
What is meconium?
It is the dark green mucilaginous material in the intestine of a full term fetus. It is a mixture of secretions from intestinal glands and amniotic fluid.
What is Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS)?
It is meconium described in human babies.
Look at slide 85/4
What is pulmonary emphysema?
Permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchial, accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls.
It is thought to be an imbalance between proteases and anti-proteases (like Alpha1 anti-trypsin)-> neutrophil derived serine proteases, particularly elastase and matrix metalloproteninases from a variety of sources are the likely culprits. Their concentrations are enhanced by neutrophil and macrophage activation induced in chronic bronchitis.
Why is a emphysematous lung (pulmonary emphysema) consider to be dysfunctional?
The loss of alveolar septa reduces the alveolar surface area-> reduction in gas exchange.
Pulmonary emphysema in animals is always ______ to obstruction of outflow of air or agonal at slaughter.
Pulmonary emphysema is frequent in animals with what?
What is bronchopneumonia?
Airflow imbalance-> the volume of air entering the lungs exceeds the volume exiting the lung during expiration.
What can pulmonary emphysema be classified as? (2)
Which is mainly associated with cattle?
Alveolar or interstitial.
What is bolus emphysema?
If a rupture happens what could happen?
Large focal air-filled spaces (bullae)
Rupture may lead to fatal pneumothorax.
*complication of emphysema
What is another name for pulmonary edema emphysema in cattle?
Look at slides 2 – 3/5
What is responsible for causing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)?
Bovine herpes virus 1
What is parainfluenza 3 virus (PI – 3 virus) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) responsible for causing? (Look at slide 4/5)
Transient rhinotracheitis and broncho-interstitial pneumonia.
What two viruses should be considered in cabs with necrotizing bronchiolitis?
BRSV & PI-3 virus
How are viral pneumonias in cattle diagnosed?
Diagnosis is confirmed by virus isolation, PCR or detection of viral antigens by fluorescence antibody test (FAT) or immunohistochemistry (IHC).
What is responsible for causing bovine enzootic pneumonia (chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia)? (7)
Mycoplasmas, Chlamydophila, Pasteurella multocida, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica and E.coli.
Calves with what are highly susceptible to bronchopneumonia?
Calves with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD)
What does bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) do?
Prevents the migration of neutrophils from the capillary in calves.
What are common sequelas of chronic suppurative pneumonia?(2)
Abscessation and bronchiectasis
What is responsible for causing shipping fever (penumonic mannheimiosis)?
Mannheimia haemolytica (formerly Pasteurella haemolytica= pneumonic pasteurellosis).
What is considered to be the most economically important respiratory disease of cattle (particularly feedlot cattle) in North America?
penumonic mannheimiosis (shipping fever)
What might you see in cases of penumonic mannheimiosis in the pulmonary parenchyma?(12/5)
What type of Mannheimia haemolytica is responsible for the severe pulmonary lesions (areas of necrosis etc.) seen in penumonic mannheimiosis?
Biotype A, serotype 1
What can Histophilus somni cause?
May cause suppurative or fibrinous bronchopneumonia.
*The later may be undistinguishable from the fibrinous bronchopneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica.
What is an important cause of chronic respiratory disease in North America feedlot cattle?
Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia.
What is characteristic of Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia?
What else can Mycoplasma bovis cause?
Chronic, necrotizing bronchopneumonia
severe chronic fibrinous arthritis.
Pictures 15 – 17/5
What causes bovine tuberculosis?
What other animals can Mycoplasma bovis affect that could lead to outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis?
Deer, elk, and bison.
*Generally wild ruminants.
Were you most likely to see lesions involved with bovine tuberculosis?
retropharyngeal lymph nodes, lungs, thoracic and mesenteric lymph nodes.
True or false:
Lesions in cervids often contain prominent suppurative exudate and may resemble abscesses.
What can cause verminous bronchitis/pneumonia in cattle?
*Varies from interstitial pneumonia (larval migration) to chronic bronchitis (intrabronchial adult parasites) to granulomatous pneumonia (eggs, dead larvae).
What can cause verminous bronchitis/pneumonia in sheep, goats & equids?
Dictyocaulus filaria –sheep, goats Dictyocaulus arnfieldi –equids (horses, donkeys)
Look at the slides 21 – 23/5
What are Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP) of cattle?
Pneumonias that did not fit any of the “classical” forms of pneumonia.
What characterize Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP) of cattle? (Look at slide 24/5 for more information)
Characterized by the presence of edema, interstitial emphysema, hyaline membranes, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia and interstitial fibrosis with cellular infiltrates.
What are they common syndromes known as atypical interstitial pneumonias? (5)
–Bovine pulmonary edema and emphysema (fog fever)
– extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)
– reinfection syndrome (hypersensitivity to Dictyocaulus sp. or BRSV)
– milk allergy
– ingestion of moldy potatoes
What type of hypersensitivity is associated with milk allergy in cows?
Type I hypersensitivity. Sensitivity is to milk casein and lactalbumin.
Why Ingestion of moldy potatoes causes atypical interstitial pneumonia?
contain 4-ipomeanol which is metabolized by mixed function oxydases in the lung (Clara cells) to a potent pneumotoxicant.
Look at slide 27/5 for the cause of fog fever
When and where is extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) found? What type of hypersensitivity?
Seen in adult dairy cattle during the winter.
Type III hypersensitivity reaction.
What is the gross appearance of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)? (Slide 28/5 for more information)
Gross lesions vary from subtle gray subpleural foci of granulomatous inflammation to severe lesions in which the lungs acquire a “meaty appearance” due to alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis.
Look at slide 29/5 for pathogenesis of toxic and allergic pneumonia (AIP) in cattle
What is Maedi (maedi-visna)?
Lifelong, persistent disease of sheep.
True or false:
You can find Maedi (maedi-visna) in Australia and New Zealand.
False. You can find in most countries with the EXCEPTION of Australia and New Zealand.
What is another name for Maedi (maedi-visna)?
It is also known as Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP).
What causes Maedi (maedi-visna)?
It is caused by a retrovirus of the lentivirus subfamily (ovine lentivirus) similar to the agent of CAE. Infection results in a lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP). The virus may also cause a non-suppurative encephalitis (Visna), lymphocytic arthritis, lymphofollicular mastitis and vasculitis.
What are the characteristics of Maedi (maedi-visna)? (Slide 30/5)
Maedi is characterized by dyspnea and an insidious slowly progressive emaciation despite good appetite.
True or false: chronic enzootic pneumonia is a multi-factorial disease that is often fatal.
False. It is rarely fatal
What is the age you will see chronic enzootic pneumonia in sheep?
Younger than one-year-old.
What are the causes of chronic enzootic pneumonia? (8)
Pasteurella multocida, PI-3, adenovirus, reovirus, RSV, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasmas (mycoplasma ovipneumoniae)
Look at slide 32-33/5
What are the two important viral pneumonias in horses worldwide?
Equine viral rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1, EHV- 4) and equine influenza
What diseases/viruses can cause viral pneumonias in horses? (4) (Look at slide 34/5 for more information)
Equine viral rhinopneumonitis (EHV-1, EHV- 4) and equine influenza, equine viral arteritis (EVA) virus and equine adenovirus.
What bacteria is often involved in secondary bacterial pneumonia?(5)
P. Multocida, Streptococcus spp., E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Rhodococcus equi
What is Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) virus, and what causes it?
Sporadic pansystemic disease of foals and horses caused by Arterivirus.
What may result from Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)?
May result in interstitial pneumonia with vasculitis, pulmonary edema, hydrothorax and hydroperitoneum.
Look at slide 36/5(unlikely to be on exam, but still should know)
Pictures slide 37-40
Interstitial pneumonia due to adenovirus or Pneumocystis carinii Infection are common complication
in ______ _____ with SCID (Inherited disorder- autosomal recessive trait- characterized by what?
Do these animals live long? (Look at slide 38 for more info)
-Lack of B and T lymphocytes
Look at slide 41-42/5
True or false:
R. equi can infect people undergoing immunosuppression (AIDS, chemotherapy, therapeutically-induced immunosuppression because of organ transplantation).
pictures slide 44-46/5(has some info on pics look at)
What are the 4 causes of viral pneumonias in pigs?
- Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)
- Swine Influenza
- Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)
- Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus (PRCV)
What are the characteristics of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)?late-term abortions, stillbirths and respiratory disease in young pigs (interstitial pneumonia)? (3)
- Late-term abortions
- Respiratory disease in young pigs (interstitial pneumonia)
What is the cause of Swine Influenza?
What are the characteristics of Swine Influenza?
Resulted from adaptation of the type A influenza virus that caused the pandemic of human influenza during World War I.
Characteristics: Low mortality unless complicated with secondary bacterial infections.
*H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009.
What can Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) cause?
What is responsible for this syndrome? (virus)
Causes progressive emaciation in weaned pigs. It also may result in interstitial pneumonia.
The causative agent is PCV-2.
What does Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus (PRCV) cause?
Sporadic cause of mild bronchointerstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis.
slide 48-53 pictures w/ info look at.
In pigs w/ PRRS & PMWS what is a common infection? (Bacteria?)
What is the main pathogen involved in enzootic pneumonia in pigs?
What can influence this dz infectivity?
What are its characteristics? (slide 49/5 more info)
- Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.
- Influenced by immune status and management factors such as crowding, poor ventilation, humidity and temperature fluctuation in the barns.
- The disease is characterized by low mortality unless complicated with secondary pathogens.
What causes porcine contagious pleuropneumonia?
What age of pigs can come down with porcine contagious pleuropneumonia?
2 to 5 months of age
What portion of the lung is affected by porcine contagious pleuropneumonia?
Dorsal area of the caudal lung lobe are often affected.
What are the characteristics of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia?
With the exception of the distribution do lesions look similar to in cattle?
Lesions are severe and characterized by hemorrhage, necrosis and thrombosis.
They look similar to those of pneumonic mannheimiosis.
Slide 55/5 pictures
True or false: pneumonias are not as common in dogs as in food producing animals.
What are the two most common infectious pneumonias in dogs?
Infectious tracheobronchitis (Kennel cough) and canine distemper are the most common.
Where the two most common noninfectious pneumonias in dogs?
Uremia and paraquat (widely used herbicide) toxicity are most common.
Look at slide 57/5
Pictures slide 58 – 62/5
True or false: In cats pneumonias are common and upper respiratory infections are rare.(63/5)
False. Upper respiratory infections are common in the menus are rare.
Pictures slide 64 – 65/5
What are the intermediate hosts for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
Snails and slugs
Of the following which domestic animal is pulmonary neoplasia most commonly found in? (66/5)
E. 2 of the above
E. 2 of the above (A & B)
True or false: (pulmonary adenomatosis) ovine pulmonary carcinoma (Seen in mature sheep) can be found around the world but not in New Zealand or Australia.
What is the cause of ovine pulmonary carcinoma?
What is ovine pulmonary carcinoma?
Disease mainly seen in mature sheep. Slowly progressive signs of respiratory disease lead to death after several months of the initial onset of respiratory signs.
Look at slide 69/5