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Flashcards in E1.hemolymphatic system Deck (80):

What are the main components of the hematopoietic system? (7)a

– cellular elements of the blood
– bone marrow
– spleen
– lymph nodes
– thymus
– accessory lymphoid tissue
– mononuclear phagocyte system


One of the three stages/periods in hematopoiesis? (Two end in period the others just a flat name)

Prenatal period, postnatal period, and adults


Where does hematopoiesis happen in the prenatal period?

The yolk sac, fetal in liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, bone marrow


Where does hematopoiesis happen in the post natal period?

Bone marrow


Where do you see hematopoiesis in adults?

Flat bones and metaphysics-cancellous bone.


What is responsible for controlling hematopoiesis?

Cytokines, hormones, growth factors.


What are the ways you can evaluate bone marrow? (6)

– peripheral blood: smear, CBC
– flow cytometry
– molecular analysis (PCR)
– aspirates
– core biopsies
– Grossduring necropsy


In which of the below will you see you red bone marrow?
A. One day old calf
B. Two month old calf
C. One-year-old cow

A. One day old calf
And B. Two month old calf
But B will be less red because of the animal getting more mature.


What is the point of bone marrow biopsy?

The bone marrow biopsy is indicated in persistent hematologic abnormalities that are unexplainable based on clinical findings and examination of blood.


What Bone marrow biopsy confirming characterize?

Hematopoietic Hypoplasia, cell density, celldistribution, Marrow architecture


Where do you want to take your core bone marrow biopsies from? (3 best sites)

Humerus (greater tubercle), Ilium crest, femur


Why might you see an increase in red Marrow appearance? (3)

– increased demand for red blood cells (erythroid hyperplasia)
– increased demand for leukocytes (myeloid hyperplasia)
– neoplasia erythroid or myeloid (leukemia)


How long will it take before you see changes in the marrow stimulation due to an increased demand for red blood cell? (KNOW THIS)



How long does it take for red blood cell production to increase? Will you see evidence of regeneration on the CBC before you see gross changes in the red marrow? (KNOW BOTH ANSWERS)

It will take about 4 to 5 days. And you will see evidence of regeneration on the CBC before you see the gross changes in the red marrow.


What are the 2 diseases that can cause an increase in white color of the bone marrow?

Lymphoproliferative diseases (more common)
myeloproliferative diseases (less common)


Give some examples of lymphoproliferative diseases and myeloproliferative diseases.

Lymphoproliferative: lymphoma, lymphocytic leukemia

myeloproliferative: myeloid leukemia, is the acidic sarcoma, multiple myeloma, metastases


What are the three types of etiologies for bone marrow diseases?

Radiation, chemical, infections


What type of infections can cause bone marrow diseases? (7)


What are the two major classifications of osteomyelitis?

Bacterial osteomyelitis and fungal osteomyelitis


What is the one way you can have a congested spleen on necropsy when the dog was not sick or ill?

The barbiturates used in euthanasia.


What are the functions of spleen? (5)

– important in defense against blood-borne pathogens
– filters blood: reduce abnormal or aged RBCs
– stores hemosiderin
cash major hematopoietic organ in fetus and neonates
– reservoir for RBCs and platelets (horses, dogs, and cats)


What are the four degenerative diseases of the spleen?

– Senile atrophy (mainly in old dogs and horses)
– Siderotic plaques/Gamma Gandy bodies (GGB only in dogs)
– amyloidosis
– splenic rupture


What is Emily this is commonly secondary to?

Chronic inflammation


In what animal(s) do you most often see a splenic rupture?
What is the primary cause?

– Dogs and cats

– trauma
*Can be seen secondarily to splenomegaly or splenic neoplasia.


Whether the two types of splenic enlargement?B

Diffuse or nodular


What are the causes of a diffuse splenic enlargement?

Congestion, cell proliferation/infiltrate, accumulation of extracellular material


What are the causes of a nodular splenic enlargement?

Neoplasia or non-neoplastic


Where the visual differences with splenomegaly? (2)

You have a bloody spleen or a meaty spleen


What are the visual differences between a bloody spleen and a meaty sleep?A

Bloody: swollen margins, dark red, uses blood on section, congestion.

Meaty: swollen margins, often dark red, bulge on cut surface (rubbery), cellular infiltrates.


What are the causes of splenomegaly (bloody spleen)? (4)O

Septicemia (anthrax (cow), salmonella (horse)), acute hemolytic anemia, splenic torsion, barbiturate euthanasia


What are the causes of splenomegaly (meaty spleens)? (7)

Septicemia (Salmonella), hemolytic disease, lymphoma, mast cell neoplasia, histocytic sarcoma, granulomatous disease (histoplasmosis), amyloidosis


What are the three causes of splenic congestion?

Barbiturate – euthanasia
septic shock – endotoxemia
– splenic torsion/venous blockage


In what animals will you see the barbiturate euthanasia spleen?

Horses and dogs


In what animals will you see a splenic volvulus?

pigs and old dogs


Why might a splenic volvulus occur?

In pigs and old dogs the spleen is attached loosely to the stomach by the Gastrosplenic ligament. This can lead to twisting around the ligaments, obstruction of venous flow, and even leading to congestion (sometimes to infarction).


What are the three causes of cell proliferation/infiltration involving conditions inducing splenomegaly? (More general, not exact bacteria or parasites etc.)
*look at slide 48

– Granulomatous diseases.
– Leukemia.
– Extrameullary hematopoiesis.


What is the granulomatous disease mostly associated with?

Mostly associated with infections with intracellular facultative pathogens of macrophages. (M. Bovis, M. Tuberculosis, Brucella spp., Franciscella tulrensis)


slide 49 to 50 are pictures.



What are the most common causes of neoplastic splenomegaly?

Lymphoma, followed by mastocytosis in the cat.


What are the three main causes of neoplastic splenic nodular enlargement?

Hemangiosarcoma, lymphoma, histiocytic sarcoma


What is the most common malignant tumor of the canine spleen?

(common in middle age to older dogs)


What breeds are at risk for histiocytic sarcoma? (4, dog breeds)(slide 59)

– Bernese Mountain dogs
– Rottweiler
– Flat coated retrievers
– Golden retriever


What are the five non-neoplastic causes of splenic nodular enlargements?

– hematomas
– nodular hyperplasia
– follicular lymphoid hyperplasia
– fibrohistiocytic nodules
– infarcts/necrosis


What is a splenic hematoma?

Nonspecific accumulations of blood that may occur alone for a company other splenic lesions.


What is the common cause of nodular hyperplasia in the spleen? What animal is it more commonly seen in? Is this a significant finding?
(Look at site 64 for more information)

– the cause is idiopathic (unknown)
– common in older dogs
– it is an incidental finding


What is splenic lymphoid hyperplasia indicative of? (Slide 65)

Indicative of chronic antigenic stimulation


What do splenic infarcts look like, and when are they commonly seen?

They are usually red – black and raised. Seeing with compromised blood supply in spelenitis, or to other causes of splenomegaly.


If you see a splenic infarct in a pig what should you do?

Think about hog cholera (classical swine fever) and report it.


What virus is responsible for post weaning multi-system of wasting syndrome in pigs? What will the spleen look like?

PCV – 2
it will have multifocal giant cells in red pulp without splenomegaly.


What are the three causes of military necrotizing spelenitis inflammation?

– tularemia
– yersiniosis
– Salmon poisoning


What is another name for tularemia? (Think names for diseases)(look at slides 76 – 79)

Rapid fever, deer fly fever, Ohara's dz


What are the three steps in the lymph node response to an antigen?
(Slide 5/2)

1. antigen recognition
2. T lymphocyte recruitment
3. Cell proliferation and anti-body synthesis


Would you expect to see in the lymph node with acute lymphadenitis? (5)

– soft
– enlarged
– moist
– grey/red (congested and edematous)
– represents early stage of response to antigen


What would you expect to see in the lymph node with chronic lymphadenitis? (4)

– Firm
– enlarged
– pale cortex and medulla
– may be necrotic and/or fibrotic


Know and memorize 8/2.
What is the etiology for Pyogranulomatous-lymphadenitis?

Rhodococcus equi
(slide 9-14/2 for more info)


What is the etiology for Caseous lymphadenitis?

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis


What is the etiology for Jowl abscess?

Streptococcus porcinus
(slide 15/2)


What is the etiology for Tuberculosis?

Mycobacterium bovis


What is the etiology for Soap bubble disease?



What is the etiology for Porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome? (Slide 16-18/2)

Porcine circovirus-2


What is the etiology for Actinobillosis?



What can rhodoucoccus equi in foals cause?

pygranulomatous pneumonia


What can post postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) result in? (4)
What age pigs are affected?

Generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, nephritis, pneumonia.

Pigs 5 to 12 weeks old are most commonly affected


In what lymph nodes will you see a marked lymphadenopathy in pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome? (4)

– inguinal
– mesenteric
– bronchial
– mediastial lymph nodes


What are the three growth disturbances of lymph nodes?

Atrophy, hyperplasia, neoplasia


When will you see lymph node atrophy?(Slide 20/2)

In aged and cachectic


What causes a reactive lymph node (lymph node hyperplasia)? (3) (slide 21/2)

– antigen presentation
– foreign material presentation
– response to circulating interleukin


Look at slide 23/2 lymphoma information.



What immune cell (B/T cell) is associated with lymphoma?

B cell (slide 24/2)


What is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in domestic animals?



Look at slide 27-28/2.



What is the most common clinical sign of lymphoma?

Painless enlargement (lymphadenopathy) of one to multiple lymph nodes.
(Slide 29/2 info for other organs)


Which of the following is true about canine lymphoma?
1. Affects middle-aged and older dogs
2. Nonspecific clinical signs
3. 90% have normal leukogram
4. 80 to 85% have multicentric distribution (most cases are intermediate to high-grade tumors)
5. Hypercalcemia of malignancy from PTHrp
A. 1, 2, 5
B. 3, 4
C. 1, 2, 3, 4
D. 1, 2, 3, 5
E. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

E. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5


What is the difference between viral induced and nonviral bovine lymphoma?

Nonviral is a sporadic lymphoma cattle under the ages of 2 to 3 years old.
Viral induced is caused by a BLV Delta retrovirus that targets the cells, and is found in adult cattle 5 to 6 years old.
(Look at slide 32/2 for more information)


What is the common locations to find viral induced bovine lymphoma?(6)

Abomasum, heart, uterus, lymph node, spine, retro orbital space.


What is the common locations to find nonviral bovine lymphoma?(2 forms)

– Thymic form
–Cutaneous form: skin nodules (ulcerated often), visceral infiltration.


Look at slide 35/2



What is the disease name for chicken lymphoma? What causes it, and what cell is targeted?(slide 37-38/2)

The name is Marek's disease.
It's caused by Gallid herpesvirus-2.
It targets the T lymphocytes.


What is the common age you will see Marek's disease in chicken?

2 to 5 months


Look at slides 43 –58