Flashcards in Ear Deck (166):
Which structure separates the middle ear from the external ear?
Which structure connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx?
The Organ of Corti is housed in
A. Scala Tympani
B. Scala Media
C. Scala Vestibula
Actively vibrates and amplifies sound
a. inner hair cells
b. outer hair cells
c. Deiter’s cells
d. Hensen’s cells
A 90 year old man can’t hear and understand certain words, what could be the cause?
a. brain atrophy
b. high frequency hearing loss
c. ossicular chain
d. ear wax
Connection of scala tympani and scala vestibuli
The ear canal is
a. 1 inch long
b. ½ cartilaginous
c. ½ hairy
d. projected inferiolaterally
What innervates the inferior ear and angle of the mandible?
d. inferior alveolar
Normal hearing threshold
a. 15 dB
b. 25 dB
c. 35 dB
d. 55 dB
The middle ear contributes an increase
a. 10 dB
b. 20 dB
c. 30 dB
d. 40 dB
Sound can be transmitted directly to the cochlea without passing through the middle ear by which mechanism?
a. Through cerebrospinal fluid vibrations
b. Direct vibration of round window membrane
c. Through the vestibular duct
d. Through the Eustachian tube
Pinna consists of
a. hyaline cartilage
b. elastic cartilage
c. reticulate fibers
d. dense regular connective tissue
The stapes is derived from which pharyngeal arch?
What is found in the Tympanic membrane?
Which of the following structures will develop first?
A. Inner ear
C. Middle ear and Eustachian tube
D. Ear canal
What opens the Eustachian tube?
A. tensor tympani
B. levator palatine
D. tensor veli palatine
Related to scala vestibuli:
B. round window
C. oval window
D. cochlear duct
How to properly view the ear canal in adults?
Pull upward and posteriorly (since it is situated laterally, antero-
When the right ear is exposed to prolonged loud noise, it will result
A. stiffening of the right ossicular chain and tympanic
B. stiffening of the left ossicular chain and tympanic membrane
C. stiffening of the both the right and left ossicular chain and tympanic membrane
D. stiffening of the ossicular chain and tympanic membrane is pathologic response
E. hearing is loss
Which organ system is not used for balance?
B. Dorsal column
E. None of the above
If you put your tuning fork above your upper lip, the resulting sound sensation is detected via
A. vibration of tympanic membrane and ossicles (vibrations bypass external ear)
B. vibration of cerebrospinal fluid
C. vibration of the external auditory canal
D. all of the above
When does the sense of hearing start?
A. fetal stage
B. 1 month old
C. 1 year old
D. 2 years old
What innervates the stapedius muscle?
Ring-like structure of the temporal bone that surrounds the External Acoustic Meatus
B. Tympanic Plate
D. Fallopian canal
True about the middle ear:
a. Most retracted part is the umbo
b. Chorda tympani runs between incus and stapes
c. Tensor tympani lies below the Eustachian tube
d. Stapedius innervated by V3
What is the threshold of pain in dB-SPL
What is the transformer ratio of the middle ear (due to area effect of the tympanic membrane and the lever action of the ossicles?
The tympanic plexus over the promontory of the middle ear is composed of which cranial nerves?
Among the vestibular nuclei, which is responsible for posture?
Low frequency sounds affect which part of the basilar membrane?
a. Proximal third
b. Middle third
d. Entire Length
True of blood supply of outer ear?
A. posterior auricular a.
B. superficial temporal a.
C. all of the above
D. none of the above
What is the threshold of pain for humans?
A. 120 - 130dB SPL
B. 110 - 120dB SPL
C. 130 - 140dB SPL
D. 110 - 130dB SPL
Inside the endolymph, there is ___ K+ and ___ Na+
A. higher, higher
B. higher, lower
C. lower, lower
D. lower, higher
The first input of balance comes from the
A. semicircular canals
D. muscle spindle in the muscles
The ___ one third of the external auditory meatus is _____.
A. medial, cartilaginous
B. lateral, cartilaginous
C. medial, bony
D. lateral, bony
Which pairing is incorrect?
I. membranous labyrinth : endolymph
II. membranous labyrinth : perilymph
III. bony labyrinth: endolymph
IV. bony labyrinth: perilymph
A. I and III
B. II and IV
C. II and III
D. II and III
What is this maneuver that is done by pinching the nose and swallowing to equalize the pressure in the ears?
In the ___ Test patient heard the sound longer than the examiner. The patient has _____.
A. Schwabach, conductive hearing loss
B. Schwabach, sensorineural hearing loss
C. Weber, conductive hearing loss
D. Weber, sensorineural hearing loss
Biger ears means better hearing. T/F
You know that you are looking at the right eardrum if
A. the cone of light is in the upper left quadrant
B. the cone of light is in the upper right quadrant
C. the cone of light is in the lower right quadrant
D. cannot tell
Which among the ff has an anterior and posterior limb?
D. A and C
E. all of the above
What do you call the bulge in the middle ear overhanging the cochlea?
Children have a more horizontal eustachian tube than adults. T/F
What separates the scala tympani and scala media?
A. Reissner’s membrane
B. Organ of Corti
D. basilar membrane
How many openings are there in the semicircular ducts and utricle?
D. more than five
A. semicircular ducts
Which is anterior to the middle ear?
A. internal jugular bulb
B. tensor tympani
D. tegmen tympani
Lateral movement of the head is sensed by which organ?
D. anterior semicircular canal
True regarding external auditory canal
A. ceruminous glands are located at the inner two-thirds of the tube
B. outer third is bony while inner two-thirds is cartilaginous
C. curved backward and downward
D. infections can spread through the bony structures
The main source of the blood supply of the inner ear comes from the:
A. basilar artery
B. vertebral artery
C. anterior inferior cerebellar artery
D. posterior inferior cerebellar artery
True of Eustachian tube
a. outer 2/3 is bony
b. inner 3rd is cartilaginous
c. opened by levator veli palatini
d. adult is horizontal
What is true of the Organ of Corti?
A. It is composed of a single row of inner hair cells
B. Movement of the hair cells generate nerve impulses
C. It rests on a delicate basilar membrane
Which is correct regarding the eardrum?
A. Handle of malleus is embedded in the fibrous layer of the drum
B. Outer layer is mucous, inner layer is epithelium
C. Cone of light represents the most retracted portion of the eardrum
D. Much bigger than the size of the tympanic space
Reena is a member of Ballet Philippines. Despite the many pirouettes she performs everyday, she does not fall to her sides because of the ability of her vestibular system to compensate for the different movements. The normal human ear has how many semicircular canals?
Dante complains of vertigo on sudden changes in position, which last for several seconds. His doctor
tells him he has Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
(BPPV), wherein there are otoliths in his posterior
semicircular canals. Which of the ff. SCC is coplanar to each other?
A. right anterior SCC- left anterior SCC
B. right posterior SCC- left anterior SCC
C. right anterior SCC-left horizontal SCC
D. right posterior SCC- left horizontal SCC
Sensory part of utricle
A. Semicircular canal
81. This produces the otolithic membrane
A. Hair cell type I
B. Hair cell type II
C. Sustentacular cells
The vestibular ganglion is also called:
A. Deiter's nucleus
B. Scarpa's ganglion
C. medial longitudinal ganglion
D. spiral ganglion
Epithelium of the Eustachian tube
A. simple squamous keratinizing epithelium
B. cuboidal epithelium
C. respiratory epithelium
D. squamous epithelium
What is the phase difference between the round window and the oval window responsible for the amplification of sound?
A. 1.3 : 1
C. less than 25 dB
D. less than 4 dB
Surface area of the tympanic membrane
A.17 sq. mm
B. 55 sq. mm
C. 85 sq. mm
D. 3.2 sq. mm
Which of the following lies on the anterior wall of the middle ear cavity?
A. carotid artery
B. superior bulb of the internal jugular vein
C. facial nerve (CN VII)
D. head of the incus
The narrowest part of the middle ear is the:
C. level of the umbo
D. tegmen tympani
The scala media ends as a blind duct known as
B. Cecum cupulare
D. Round window
The stereocilia of the inner hair cells (?) of the inner ear arise from:
A. Reissner's membrane
B. basilar membrane
C. tectorial membrane
D. secondary membrane
Deepest depression of the auricle
The elevated margin of the auricle
The lobule is cartilagenous. T/F
It's non-cartilagenous, consisting of fibrous tissue, fat and blood vessels.
The arterial supply to the auricle
Posterior auricular and superior temoporal arteries
The superior temporal artery is a terminal branch of which artery?
External carotid artery
The nerves to the skin of the auricle
Great auricular and auriculotemporal nerves
The auriculotemporal nerve is part of which cranial nerve?
The tongue-like projection overlapping the external acoustic meatus
Innervation of the cranial part and the posterior part of the lateral surface of the auricle
Great auricular nerve
Innervation of the skin anterior to the external acoustic meatus
The lymphatic drainage of the auticle
Superficial parotid lymph nodes, mastoid lymph nodes, deep cervical lymph nodes, and superficial cervical lymph nodes
Lymphatic drainage of the lateral surface of the superior part of the auricle
Superficial parotid lymph nodes
Lymphatic drainage of the cranial surface of the superior part of the auricle
Mastoid lymph nodes, and deep cervical lymph nodes
Lymphatic drainage of the inferior half of the auricle
Superficial cervical lymph nodes
Length of the external acoustic meatus
Which part of the EAM is bony?
The skin that lines the medial two-thirds of the EAM is continuous with the skin that lines the external layer of the tympanic membrane. T/F
The lateral two-thirds of the EAM is slightly S-shaped and cartilaginous lined with skin continuous with the external layer of the tympanic membrane. T/F
It's the lateral THIRD of the EAM that is slightly S-shaped and cartilagenous, lined with skin continuous with the AURICLE.
Cerumen is produced by which structures?
Ceruminous and sebaceous glands in the subcutaneous tissue of the cartilagenous part of the meatus
The ceruminous and sebaceous glands that produce cerumen are in the bony part of the meatus. T/F
They are in the cartilaginous part.
Diameter of the tympanic membrane
The peak of the cone-like central depression of the tympanic membrane
Which bone is attached to the umbo?
The thin part of the tympanic membrane superior to the malleus is called the pars tense. T/F
It is the pars flaccid.
The part of the tympanic membrane with the radial and circular fibers
Nerve supply of the external surface of the tympanic membrane
Auriculotemporal nerve (V3) and some articular branch of vagus (CN X)
Nerve supply of the internal surface of the tympanic membrane
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
The tympanic cavity is the inner ear. T/F
It is the middle ear.
In which bone is the tympanic cavity found?
Petrous part of the temporal bone
Contents of the middle ear
Auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)
Stapedius and tensor tympani muscles
Chorda tympani nerve (CN VII)
Tympanic plexus of nerves
Roof of the tympanic cavity
Tegmen tympani (tegmen wall)
Floor of the tympanic cavity
Lateral wall of the tympanic cavity
Superior: bony wall of the epitympanic recess
Inferior: Tympanic membrane
Medial wall of the tympanic cavity
Initial (basal) part of the cochlea, and the oval and round windows
Posterior wall of the tympanic cavity
Anterior wall of the tympanic cavity
Function of the pharyngotympanic tube
Equalizes pressure in middle ear with atmospheric pressure to allow free movement of the tympanic membrane
Ring of fibrocartilage that attaches the tympanic membrane to the bone
The space in the tympanic cavity superior to the tympanic membrane
Tensor veli palatini is superior to levator veli palatini. T/F
Arteries of the pharyngotympanic tube
Ascending pharyngeal artery (from external carotid),
Middle meningeal artery and artery to the pterygoid canal (from maxillary artery)
To which vein does the pharyngotympanic tube drain?
Pterygoid venous plexus
Lymphanic drainage of the pharyngotympanic tube?
Deep cervical lymph nodes
Nerves of the pharyngotympanic tube
Tympanic plexus (from CN IX) and anteriorly, pterygopalatine ganglion
FIrst bones to fully ossify during development
The auditory ossicles are covered with the mucous membrane lining the tympanic cavity, but they lack a surrounding layer of osteogenic periosteum. T/F
Which part of the malleus articulates with the incus?
Which nerve crosses the medial surface of the neck of the malleus?
Which bone does the chorda tympani cross in the tympanic cavity?
Malleus, at the medal surface of neck
Order of the auditory ossicles from tympanic membrane to oval window
Malleus, incus, stapes
Articulation of the incus and stapes
Long limb of incus thru the lenticular processes, attach to the head of the stapes
Smallest bone in the body
The base of the incus attaches to the oval window. T/F
It is the base of the STAPES.
Importance of the base of the stapes being considerately smaller than the tympanic membrane
The vibratory force of the stapes is 10 times greater than that of the tympanic membrane
The ossicles increase the amplitude, while increasing the force of the vibration transmitted from the tympanic membrane. T/F
The ossicles INCREASE THE FORCE, but DECREASE THE AMPLITUDE of the vibrations.
Muscle that pulls the malleus handle medially to tense the tympanic membrane and reduce the amplitude of its oscillations
Nerve of the tensor tympani
Muscle that prevents damage to the internal ear when exposed to loud sounds
Muscle that pulls the stapes posteriorly and tilts its base in the oval window to tighten the anular ligament and reduce oscillatory range
Nerve to stapedius
Muscle that prevents excessive movement of the stapes
Muscles that protect the tympanic membrane from loud sounds
Tensor tympani and stapedius
Bone that houses the internal ear
Petrous part of the temporal bone
Organ for sound and balance
Attachments of the stapes
Incus long limb and oval (elliptical) window
Fluid in the membranous labyrinth
Fluid of the bony labrytinth
Cavities that consist the bony labyrinth
Cochlea, vestibule, semi-circular canals
The bone surrounding the bony labyrinth
The shell-shaped part of the bony labyrinth
Number of turns the spiral canal of the cochlea makes around the modiolus
The bony core of the cochlea
Which closes the round window
Secondary tympanic membrane
On which part of the bony labyrinth is the round window
On which part of the bony labyrinth is the oval windos
Vestibule (lateral wall)
Parts of the vestibule
Saccule and utricle
The vestibular aqueduct opens to which passage?
Internal acoustic meatus
The three semi-circular canals
Superior, posterior, lateral
Which semi-circular canals have a common limb?
Anterior and posterior
The swelling at the end of the semi-circular canals that open into the vestibule
The endolymph is similar in composition with the extracellular fluid. T/F
It is similar with the INTRACELLULAR fluid. The perilymph is similar with the extracellular fluid.
The thickening of th periosteal lining of the cochlea that secures the cochlear duct to the cochlea
The utricle communicates with the saccule through this duct
The endolymphatic duct arises from this duct
What are maculae?
Specialized areas of sensory epithelium in the utricle and saccule
Location of macula of the saccule
Medial wall of saccule
Location of macula of the utricle
Floor of the utricle
Innervation of hair cells in the maculae
Function of endolymphatic sac
Storage for excess endolymph
The sensory area in the semi-circular canals
What does the ampullary crest sense?
Movements of the endolymph in the ampulla
The semilunar communication at the apex of the cochlea
The waves of hydraulic pressure created in the perilymph of the vestibule by the vibrations of the base of the stapes ascend to the apex of the cochlea through which channel
The pressure waves pass through the helicotrema to the basal turn of the cochlea through this channel
What forms the roof of the cochlear duct?
What forms the floor of the cochlear duct?
Receptor of auditory stimuli
Spiral organ of Corti
What overlies the organ of Corti?
The internal acoustic meatus is closed laterally by a thin, perforated plate of bone that separates it from the internal ear. T/F
Which structures pass through the plate of the internal acoustic meatus?
CN VII, CN VIII, its divisions and blood vessels.