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Flashcards in Ear Deck (166):
1

Which structure separates the middle ear from the external ear?

Tympanic membrane

2

Which structure connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx?

Pharyngotympanic tube

3

The Organ of Corti is housed in

A. Scala Tympani
B. Scala Media
C. Scala Vestibula
D. Helicotrema

B

4

Actively vibrates and amplifies sound

a. inner hair cells
b. outer hair cells
c. Deiter’s cells
d. Hensen’s cells

B

5

A 90 year old man can’t hear and understand certain words, what could be the cause?

a. brain atrophy
b. high frequency hearing loss
c. ossicular chain 
d. ear wax

B

6

Connection of scala tympani and scala vestibuli

Helicotrema

7

The ear canal is

a. 1 inch long
b. ½ cartilaginous
c. ½ hairy
d. projected inferiolaterally

D

8

What innervates the inferior ear and angle of the mandible?

a. auriculotemporal
b.great auricular
c. mental
d. inferior alveolar

B

9

Normal hearing threshold

a. 15 dB
b. 25 dB
c. 35 dB
d. 55 dB

B

10

The middle ear contributes an increase

a. 10 dB
b. 20 dB
c. 30 dB
d. 40 dB

D

11

Sound can be transmitted directly to the cochlea without passing through the middle ear by which mechanism?

a. Through cerebrospinal fluid vibrations
b. Direct vibration of round window membrane
c. Through the vestibular duct
d. Through the Eustachian tube

B

12

Pinna consists of

a. hyaline cartilage
b. elastic cartilage
c. reticulate fibers
d. dense regular connective tissue

B

13

The stapes is derived from which pharyngeal arch?

a. 1st
b. 2nd
c. 3rd
d. 4th

B

14

What is found in the Tympanic membrane?

A. Ectoderm
B. Endoderm
C. Mesoderm
D. All

D

15

Which of the following structures will develop first?

A. Inner ear
B. Ossicles
C. Middle ear and Eustachian tube
D. Ear canal

B

16

What opens the Eustachian tube?

A. tensor tympani
B. levator palatine
C.pharyngoglossus
D. tensor veli palatine

D

17

Related to scala vestibuli:

A. helicotrema
B. round window
C. oval window
D. cochlear duct

C

18

How to properly view the ear canal in adults?

Pull upward and posteriorly (since it is situated laterally, antero-
inferiorly)

19

When the right ear is exposed to prolonged loud noise, it will result

A. stiffening of the right ossicular chain and tympanic
membrane
B. stiffening of the left ossicular chain and tympanic membrane
C. stiffening of the both the right and left ossicular chain and tympanic membrane
D. stiffening of the ossicular chain and tympanic membrane is pathologic response
E. hearing is loss

A

20

Which organ system is not used for balance?

A. Visual
B. Dorsal column
C. Cerebellum
D. Vestibular
E. None of the above

E

21

If you put your tuning fork above your upper lip, the resulting sound sensation is detected via

A. vibration of tympanic membrane and ossicles (vibrations bypass external ear)
B. vibration of cerebrospinal fluid
C. vibration of the external auditory canal
D. all of the above

A

22

When does the sense of hearing start?

A. fetal stage
B. 1 month old
C. 1 year old
D. 2 years old

A

23

What innervates the stapedius muscle?

A. CNIII
B.CNV
C.CNVII
D.CNVIII

C

24

Ring-like structure of the temporal bone that surrounds the External Acoustic Meatus

A. Squama
B. Tympanic Plate
C. Petrous
D. Fallopian canal

B

25

True about the middle ear:

a. Most retracted part is the umbo
b. Chorda tympani runs between incus and stapes
c. Tensor tympani lies below the Eustachian tube
d. Stapedius innervated by V3

A

26

What is the threshold of pain in dB-SPL

a. 80
b. 100
c. 130
d. 140

C

27

What is the transformer ratio of the middle ear (due to area effect of the tympanic membrane and the lever action of the ossicles?

a. 1:3:1
b. 22:1
c. 17:1
d. 12:01:00

B

28

The tympanic plexus over the promontory of the middle ear is composed of which cranial nerves?

a. 7,8,9
b. 8,9,10
c. 7,9,10
d. 7,8

C

29

Among the vestibular nuclei, which is responsible for posture?

a. Medial
b. Lateral
c. Superior
d. Inferior

B

30

Low frequency sounds affect which part of the basilar membrane?

a. Proximal third
b. Middle third
c. Apex
d. Entire Length

D

31

True of blood supply of outer ear?

A. posterior auricular a.
B. superficial temporal a.
C. all of the above
D. none of the above

C

32

What is the threshold of pain for humans?

A. 120 - 130dB SPL
B. 110 - 120dB SPL
C. 130 - 140dB SPL
D. 110 - 130dB SPL

A

33

Inside the endolymph, there is ___ K+ and ___ Na+

A. higher, higher
B. higher, lower
C. lower, lower
D. lower, higher

B

34

The first input of balance comes from the

A. semicircular canals
B. brain
C. eyes
D. muscle spindle in the muscles

C

35

The ___ one third of the external auditory meatus is _____.

A. medial, cartilaginous
B. lateral, cartilaginous
C. medial, bony
D. lateral, bony

B

36

Which pairing is incorrect?

I. membranous labyrinth : endolymph
II. membranous labyrinth : perilymph
III. bony labyrinth: endolymph
IV. bony labyrinth: perilymph

A. I and III
B. II and IV
C. II and III
D. II and III

C

37

What is this maneuver that is done by pinching the nose and swallowing to equalize the pressure in the ears?

A. Valsalva
B. Babinski
C. Toynbee
D. Cottle

C

38

In the ___ Test patient heard the sound longer than the examiner. The patient has _____.

A. Schwabach, conductive hearing loss
B. Schwabach, sensorineural hearing loss
C. Weber, conductive hearing loss
D. Weber, sensorineural hearing loss

A

39

Biger ears means better hearing. T/F

T

40

You know that you are looking at the right eardrum if

A. the cone of light is in the upper left quadrant
B. the cone of light is in the upper right quadrant
C. the cone of light is in the lower right quadrant
D. cannot tell

C

41

Which among the ff has an anterior and posterior limb?

A. incus
B. malleus
C. stapes
D. A and C
E. all of the above

C

42

What do you call the bulge in the middle ear overhanging the cochlea?

A. utricle
B. saccule
C. promontory
D. helicotrema

C

43

Children have a more horizontal eustachian tube than adults. T/F

T

44

What separates the scala tympani and scala media?

A. Reissner’s membrane
B. Organ of Corti
C. helicotrema
D. basilar membrane

D

45

How many openings are there in the semicircular ducts and utricle?

A. three
B. five
C. one
D. more than five

B

46

Inner balance

A. semicircular ducts
B. saccule
C. utricle
D. malleus

A

47

Which is anterior to the middle ear?

A. internal jugular bulb
B. tensor tympani
C. pyramid
D. tegmen tympani

B

48

Lateral movement of the head is sensed by which organ?

A. utricle
B. saccule
C. vestibule
D. anterior semicircular canal

A

49

True regarding external auditory canal

A. ceruminous glands are located at the inner two-thirds of the tube
B. outer third is bony while inner two-thirds is cartilaginous
C. curved backward and downward
D. infections can spread through the bony structures

D

50

The main source of the blood supply of the inner ear comes from the:

A. basilar artery
B. vertebral artery
C. anterior inferior cerebellar artery
D. posterior inferior cerebellar artery

C

51

True of Eustachian tube

a. outer 2/3 is bony
b. inner 3rd is cartilaginous
c. opened by levator veli palatini
d. adult is horizontal

C

52

What is true of the Organ of Corti?

A. It is composed of a single row of inner hair cells
B. Movement of the hair cells generate nerve impulses
C. It rests on a delicate basilar membrane

A

53

Which is correct regarding the eardrum?

A. Handle of malleus is embedded in the fibrous layer of the drum
B. Outer layer is mucous, inner layer is epithelium
C. Cone of light represents the most retracted portion of the eardrum
D. Much bigger than the size of the tympanic space

A

54

Reena is a member of Ballet Philippines. Despite the many pirouettes she performs everyday, she does not fall to her sides because of the ability of her vestibular system to compensate for the different movements. The normal human ear has how many semicircular canals?

A. 1
B. 3
C. 6
D. 9

B

55

Dante complains of vertigo on sudden changes in position, which last for several seconds. His doctor
tells him he has Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
(BPPV), wherein there are otoliths in his posterior
semicircular canals. Which of the ff. SCC is coplanar to each other?

A. right anterior SCC- left anterior SCC
B. right posterior SCC- left anterior SCC
C. right anterior SCC-left horizontal SCC
D. right posterior SCC- left horizontal SCC

B

56

Sensory part of utricle

A. Semicircular canal
B. Macula
C. Cochlea
D. Concha

B

57

81. This produces the otolithic membrane

A. Hair cell type I
B. Hair cell type II
C. Sustentacular cells
D. Reiter's

C

58

The vestibular ganglion is also called:

A. Deiter's nucleus
B. Scarpa's ganglion
C. medial longitudinal ganglion
D. spiral ganglion

B

59

Epithelium of the Eustachian tube

A. simple squamous keratinizing epithelium
B. cuboidal epithelium
C. respiratory epithelium
D. squamous epithelium

C

60

What is the phase difference between the round window and the oval window responsible for the amplification of sound?

A. 1.3 : 1
B. 22
C. less than 25 dB
D. less than 4 dB

D

61

Surface area of the tympanic membrane

A.17 sq. mm
B. 55 sq. mm
C. 85 sq. mm
D. 3.2 sq. mm

C

62

Which of the following lies on the anterior wall of the middle ear cavity?

A. carotid artery
B. superior bulb of the internal jugular vein
C. facial nerve (CN VII)
D. head of the incus

A

63

The narrowest part of the middle ear is the:

A. epitympanum
B. hypotympanum
C. level of the umbo
D. tegmen tympani

C

64

The scala media ends as a blind duct known as

A. Helicotrema
B. Cecum cupulare
C. Modiolus
D. Round window

B

65

The stereocilia of the inner hair cells (?) of the inner ear arise from:

A. Reissner's membrane
B. basilar membrane
C. tectorial membrane
D. secondary membrane

C

66

Deepest depression of the auricle

Concha

67

The elevated margin of the auricle

Helix

68

The lobule is cartilagenous. T/F

F

It's non-cartilagenous, consisting of fibrous tissue, fat and blood vessels.

69

The arterial supply to the auricle

Posterior auricular and superior temoporal arteries

70

The superior temporal artery is a terminal branch of which artery?

External carotid artery

71

The nerves to the skin of the auricle

Great auricular and auriculotemporal nerves

72

The auriculotemporal nerve is part of which cranial nerve?

CN V3

73

The tongue-like projection overlapping the external acoustic meatus

Tragus

74

Innervation of the cranial part and the posterior part of the lateral surface of the auricle

Great auricular nerve

75

Innervation of the skin anterior to the external acoustic meatus

Auriculotemporal nerve

76

The lymphatic drainage of the auticle

Superficial parotid lymph nodes, mastoid lymph nodes, deep cervical lymph nodes, and superficial cervical lymph nodes

77

Lymphatic drainage of the lateral surface of the superior part of the auricle

Superficial parotid lymph nodes

78

Lymphatic drainage of the cranial surface of the superior part of the auricle

Mastoid lymph nodes, and deep cervical lymph nodes

79

Lymphatic drainage of the inferior half of the auricle

Superficial cervical lymph nodes

80

Length of the external acoustic meatus

2-3 cm

81

Which part of the EAM is bony?

Medial two-thirds

82

The skin that lines the medial two-thirds of the EAM is continuous with the skin that lines the external layer of the tympanic membrane. T/F

T

83

The lateral two-thirds of the EAM is slightly S-shaped and cartilaginous lined with skin continuous with the external layer of the tympanic membrane. T/F

F

It's the lateral THIRD of the EAM that is slightly S-shaped and cartilagenous, lined with skin continuous with the AURICLE.

84

Cerumen is produced by which structures?

Ceruminous and sebaceous glands in the subcutaneous tissue of the cartilagenous part of the meatus

85

The ceruminous and sebaceous glands that produce cerumen are in the bony part of the meatus. T/F

F

They are in the cartilaginous part.

86

Diameter of the tympanic membrane

Approximately 1cm

87

The peak of the cone-like central depression of the tympanic membrane

Umbo

88

Which bone is attached to the umbo?

Malleus

89

The thin part of the tympanic membrane superior to the malleus is called the pars tense. T/F

F

It is the pars flaccid.

90

The part of the tympanic membrane with the radial and circular fibers

Parse tense

91

Nerve supply of the external surface of the tympanic membrane

Auriculotemporal nerve (V3) and some articular branch of vagus (CN X)

92

Nerve supply of the internal surface of the tympanic membrane

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

93

The tympanic cavity is the inner ear. T/F

F

It is the middle ear.

94

In which bone is the tympanic cavity found?

Petrous part of the temporal bone

95

Contents of the middle ear

Auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)
Stapedius and tensor tympani muscles
Chorda tympani nerve (CN VII)
Tympanic plexus of nerves

96

Roof of the tympanic cavity

Tegmen tympani (tegmen wall)

97

Floor of the tympanic cavity

Jugular wall

98

Lateral wall of the tympanic cavity

Superior: bony wall of the epitympanic recess
Inferior: Tympanic membrane

99

Medial wall of the tympanic cavity

Initial (basal) part of the cochlea, and the oval and round windows

100

Posterior wall of the tympanic cavity

Mastoid antrum

101

Anterior wall of the tympanic cavity

Carotid wall

102

Function of the pharyngotympanic tube

Equalizes pressure in middle ear with atmospheric pressure to allow free movement of the tympanic membrane

103

Ring of fibrocartilage that attaches the tympanic membrane to the bone

Anulus

104

The space in the tympanic cavity superior to the tympanic membrane

Epitympanic recess

105

Tensor veli palatini is superior to levator veli palatini. T/F

T

106

Arteries of the pharyngotympanic tube

Ascending pharyngeal artery (from external carotid),
Middle meningeal artery and artery to the pterygoid canal (from maxillary artery)

107

To which vein does the pharyngotympanic tube drain?

Pterygoid venous plexus

108

Lymphanic drainage of the pharyngotympanic tube?

Deep cervical lymph nodes

109

Nerves of the pharyngotympanic tube

Tympanic plexus (from CN IX) and anteriorly, pterygopalatine ganglion

110

FIrst bones to fully ossify during development

Auditory ossicles

111

The auditory ossicles are covered with the mucous membrane lining the tympanic cavity, but they lack a surrounding layer of osteogenic periosteum. T/F

T

112

Which part of the malleus articulates with the incus?

Head

113

Which nerve crosses the medial surface of the neck of the malleus?

Chorda tympani

114

Which bone does the chorda tympani cross in the tympanic cavity?

Malleus, at the medal surface of neck

115

Order of the auditory ossicles from tympanic membrane to oval window

Malleus, incus, stapes

116

Articulation of the incus and stapes

Long limb of incus thru the lenticular processes, attach to the head of the stapes

117

Smallest bone in the body

Stapes

118

The base of the incus attaches to the oval window. T/F

F

It is the base of the STAPES.

119

Importance of the base of the stapes being considerately smaller than the tympanic membrane

The vibratory force of the stapes is 10 times greater than that of the tympanic membrane

120

The ossicles increase the amplitude, while increasing the force of the vibration transmitted from the tympanic membrane. T/F

F

The ossicles INCREASE THE FORCE, but DECREASE THE AMPLITUDE of the vibrations.

121

Muscle that pulls the malleus handle medially to tense the tympanic membrane and reduce the amplitude of its oscillations

Tensor tympani

122

Nerve of the tensor tympani

V3

123

Muscle that prevents damage to the internal ear when exposed to loud sounds

Tensor tympani

124

Muscle that pulls the stapes posteriorly and tilts its base in the oval window to tighten the anular ligament and reduce oscillatory range

Stapedius

125

Nerve to stapedius

CN VII

126

Muscle that prevents excessive movement of the stapes

Stapedius

127

Muscles that protect the tympanic membrane from loud sounds

Tensor tympani and stapedius

128

Bone that houses the internal ear

Petrous part of the temporal bone

129

Organ for sound and balance

Vestibulocochlear organ

130

Attachments of the stapes

Incus long limb and oval (elliptical) window

131

Fluid in the membranous labyrinth

Endolymph

132

Fluid of the bony labrytinth

Perilymph

133

Cavities that consist the bony labyrinth

Cochlea, vestibule, semi-circular canals

134

The bone surrounding the bony labyrinth

Otic capsule

135

The shell-shaped part of the bony labyrinth

Cochlea

136

Number of turns the spiral canal of the cochlea makes around the modiolus

2.5

137

The bony core of the cochlea

Modiolus

138

Which closes the round window

Secondary tympanic membrane

139

On which part of the bony labyrinth is the round window

Cochlea

140

On which part of the bony labyrinth is the oval windos

Vestibule (lateral wall)

141

Parts of the vestibule

Saccule and utricle

142

The vestibular aqueduct opens to which passage?

Internal acoustic meatus

143

The three semi-circular canals

Superior, posterior, lateral

144

Which semi-circular canals have a common limb?

Anterior and posterior

145

The swelling at the end of the semi-circular canals that open into the vestibule

Bony ampulla

146

The endolymph is similar in composition with the extracellular fluid. T/F

F

It is similar with the INTRACELLULAR fluid. The perilymph is similar with the extracellular fluid.

147

The thickening of th periosteal lining of the cochlea that secures the cochlear duct to the cochlea

Spiral ligament

148

The utricle communicates with the saccule through this duct

Utriculosaccular duct

149

The endolymphatic duct arises from this duct

Utriculoaccular duct

150

What are maculae?

Specialized areas of sensory epithelium in the utricle and saccule

151

Location of macula of the saccule

Medial wall of saccule

152

Location of macula of the utricle

Floor of the utricle

153

Innervation of hair cells in the maculae

Vestibulocochlear nerve

154

Function of endolymphatic sac

Storage for excess endolymph

155

The sensory area in the semi-circular canals

Ampullary crest

156

What does the ampullary crest sense?

Movements of the endolymph in the ampulla

157

The semilunar communication at the apex of the cochlea

Helicotrema

158

The waves of hydraulic pressure created in the perilymph of the vestibule by the vibrations of the base of the stapes ascend to the apex of the cochlea through which channel

Scala vestibuli

159

The pressure waves pass through the helicotrema to the basal turn of the cochlea through this channel

Scala tympani

160

What forms the roof of the cochlear duct?

Vestibular membrane

161

What forms the floor of the cochlear duct?

Basilar membrane

162

Receptor of auditory stimuli

Spiral organ of Corti

163

What overlies the organ of Corti?

Tectorial membrane

164

The internal acoustic meatus is closed laterally by a thin, perforated plate of bone that separates it from the internal ear. T/F

T

165

Which structures pass through the plate of the internal acoustic meatus?

CN VII, CN VIII, its divisions and blood vessels.

166

The vestibulocochlear nerve divides near the lateral end ot the internal acoustic meatus into which branches?

Vestibular nerve and cochlear nerve