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Flashcards in Eyes Deck (228):
1

Orientation of the orbital bases and apices

Bases: directed anterolaterally
Apices: directed posteriomedially

2

The thickest layer of the cornea is
A. Collagen
B. Vitreous
C. Aqueous
D. Endothelial Cells

A

3

. A distinctly red spot on the white of the eye fades to brown after several weeks. The patient has no other symptoms. The long resolution time of the spot is due to which of the following:

A. Poor venous drainage of where the spot is
B. continuing trauma to vessels in conjunctiva/sclera
C. immobility of overlying structure
D. eyeball's poor vascularity

A

4

. What is the cranial nerve for pain in the eye?
A. CN II
B. CN III
C. CN V
D. CN VII

C

5

What is the most vital consideration for the true ophthalmological emergencies?

A. Extreme eye pain
B. Development of *something* in cornea and lens
C. Extreme symptoms (excessive bleeding, referred pain)
D. Rapid permanent eye loss

D

6

The transparent mucuos membrane that lines the eyelids and the eye ball

Conjunctiva

7

Parts of the conjunctiva

Palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva

8

Conjunctiva on the eyelids

Palpebral conjunctiva

9

Conjunctiva on the eyeball

Bulbar conjunctiva

10

The recesses formed by the lines of reflection of the palpebral conjunction onto the eyeball

Superior and inferior fornices

11

The gap between the eyelids

Palpebral fissure

12

The space bound by the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva

Conjunctival sac

13

The dense bands of connective tissue that form the "skeleton" of the eyelids

Superior and inferior tarsi (singular = "tarsus")

14

Which glands secrete lipids that lubricate the edges of the eyelids and prevents them from sticking together when they close?

Tarsal glands

15

Large sebaceous glands associated with the eyelashes

Ciliary glands

16

Junctions of the superior and inferior eyelids

Medial and lateral palpebral commissures

17

The angles of the eye

Medial and lateral canthi

18

Structure connecting the tarsi to the medial margin of the orbit

Medial palpebral ligament

19

Structure connecting the tarsi to the lateral margin of the orbit, but does not provide for direct muscle attachment

Lateral palpebral ligament

20

You asked a patient to look to his right. Which of the following do you expect to happen?

A. The medial rectus of his left eye contracts
B. The lateral rectus of his left eye contracts
C. The lateral rectus of his right eye relaxes
D. The medial rectus of his right eye contracts

A

21

Red eye, painless and non­blinding symptoms are associated with

A. Sclera
B. Conjuctiva
C. Cornea
D. Subconjunctival space

D

22

Large objects of similar size to a basketball are prevented from damaging the eyes when they hit the face by which of the following structures?

A. Orbital roof
B. Orbital floor
C. Orbital margin
D. Orbital apex

C

23

A patient enters a dark room. Which of the following changes in order to accommodate light?

A. Pupillary aperture
B. Orbital aperture
C. Palpebral aperture
D. None of the above

A

24

The tear film is created from the lacrimal gland and structures within this other structure:

A. medial canthus
B. eyelids
C. nasolacrimal gland
D. lacrimal sac

B

25

Cone receptors are used for

A. depth
B. distance
C. movement
D. shape

D

26

An upside down object forms what kind of image when it passes through the retina?

A. right side up, unmirrored
B. upside down, unmirrored
C. right side up, mirrored
D. upside down, unmirrored

C

27

What is the vein that drains the eyes?

A. Vortex
B. Central Ciliary Vein

A

28

Function of the tarsal plate

A. Attachment of SR
B. Position of lacrimal glands
C. Protects the eyeball
D. Attachment of Levator Palpebrae

D

29

Which is not a layer of the retina

A. Bowman's Layer
B. External limiting layer
C. Photoreceptor layer
D. Ganglion cell layer

A

30

Area where the lacrimal sac is situated

A. Medial wall of the orbit
B. Frontal Bone
C. Ethmoidal Bone

B

31

Which of the following is involved in the sensory relay in vision?

A. Edinger-Westphal nucleus
B. Otic ganglion

A

32

What is the function of the eyelashes?

A. Protect cornea from excess sunlight
B. Sweep off dust in air in front of eyes
C. Protect eye from sweat from the forehead
D. Marks the posterior boundary of the eyelid

A

33

Which of the following situations DOES NOT seem to indicate a true opthalmologic emergency?

A. Sudden blindness in one eye, no other symptom noted
B. A lab accident involving unknown chemicals exploding and splattering all over the face of the patient
C. Acid thrown at the patient's face by an assailant
D. Patient noticing that he is being blindsided frequently

D

34

Which structure divides the lacrimal gland into superior (orbital) and inferior (palpebral) parts?

Tendon of the levator palpebrae superioris

35

The accessory lacrimal glands are more numerous in the superior eyelid or inferior eyelid?

Superior eyelid

36

Nerve stimulation of production of lacrimal fluid

Paraympathetic impulses from CN VII

37

To where do the excretory ducts of the lacrimal gland open?

Lateral part of superior conjunctival fornix

38

When the cornea becomes dry, the eye blinks. T/F

T

39

DIrection of closing of the eyelids

Lateral to medial

40

The Optha ROD noted that the retina had a healthy yellowish color. He mentally took note that this probably meant an adequate blood supply to the retina. He recalled that the ganglion fiber layers of the retina are supplied by these vessels.

A. opthalmic artery
B. central retinal artery
C. ciliary arterial arcades
D. choriocapillaris

B

41

The optha ROD (resident on duty) then examined the patient’s OD using his opthalmoscope. Looking into the right eye, he observed a round structure from which vascular arcades were entering the lobe. What is this structure?

A. macula
B. optic disc
C. ora serrate
D. central retinal vein

B

42

If you ask the patient to look UP & LEFT (diagonally to the left), which muscle is acting on the LEFT eye?

A. IO
B. SO
C. SR
D. MR

C

43

The patient recalled that as he was hit in the OD, he saw a flash of light even though he was able to close his eyelid. Which of the ff. structures was stimulated producing the flash of light?

A. cornea
B. lens
C. vitreous
D. retina

D

44

Right after he was struck, the patient recalled experiencing a very sharp pain in a point below his
eye along the orbital ridge, which of the following
structures was most likely to be involved?

A. troclear nerve
B. oculomotor nerve
C. infraorbital nerve
D. optic nerve

C

45

Approximated diameter of the eyeball

25mm

46

All anatomical structures within the eyeball have a circular or spherical arrangement. T/F

T

47

The connective tissue layer that surrounds the eyeball to support it within the orbit

Fascial sheath of the eyeball (bulbar fascia or Tenon capsule)

48

This very loose connective tissue layer (a potential space) lies between the fascial sheath and the outer layer of the eyeball

Episcleral space

49

The fibrous layer of the eyeball

Sclera, cornea

50

The vascular layer of the eyeball

Choroid, ciliary body, and iris

51

The inner layer of the eyeball

Retina

52

Two main parts of the retina

Optic and non-optic

53

Function of the fibrous layer of the eyeball

Provides shape and resistance

54

The tough opaque part of the fibrous layer of the eyeball, covering the posterior five sixths of the eyeball

Sclera

55

Part of the eyeball that provided attachment for both the extraocular and the extrinsic muscles of the eye

Sclera

56

The anterior part of the sclera is seen through which transparent structure?

Bulbar conjunctiva

57

"White of the eye"

Sclera

58

Transparent part of the fibrous layer covering the anterior one sixth of the eyeball

Cornea

59

The convexity of the cornea is greater or less than that of the sclera?

Greater

60

The sclera and cornea have different collagen composition and degree of hydration. T/F

T

61

The sclera is completely avascular, while the cornea is relatively avascular. T/F

F

The sclera is RELATIVELY avascular, while the cornea is COMPLETELY avascular.

62

From where does the cornea get its nourishment?

From capillary beds around its periphery and fluids on its external and internal surfaces

63

Fluid on the external surface of the cornea

Lacrimal fluid

64

Fluid on the internal surface of the cornea

Aqueous humor

65

The lacrimal fluid provides the cornea oxygen absorbed from the air. T/F

T

66

Corneal innervation

Opthalmic nerve (V1)

67

The angle formed by the intersecting curvatures of sclera and cornea at the corneoscleral junction

Corneal limbus

68

How wide is the corneoscleral junction?

1 mm

69

Another name for the vascular layer of the eyeball

Uvea, or uveal tract

70

The vascular layer of the eyeball

Choroid, ciliary body, iris

71

The dark reddish brown layer between the sclera and the retina

Choroid

72

Largest part of the vascular layer of the eyeball

Choroid

73

Vascular part that lines most of the sclera

Choroid

74

The large vesssels of the choroid is located internally (near the sclera). T/F

They are located externally (near the sclera).

75

The finest vessels of the choroid

Capillary lamina of the choroid or choriocapillaris

76

Choriocapillaris is found in the innermost part of the choroid, adjacent to which structure?

Avascular light-sensitive layer of the retina

77

The choriocapillarios supply the retina with oxygen and nutrients. T/F

T

78

The choriocapillaris has the highest perfusion rate per gram of tissue of all vascular beds of the body. T/F

T

79

Layer responsible for "red eye" in flash photography

Choroid

80

The choroid attaches firmly to which structure?

Pigment layer of the retina

81

The pigment layer of the retina cannot be stripped from the sclera because it is firmly attached to the choroid. T/F

F

It is firmly attached to the choroid, but can be easily stripped form the sclera.

82

The choroid is continuous anteriorly with which structure?

Ciliary body

83

The ciliary body is posterior to the corneoscleral junction. T/F

T

84

The ciliary body is muscular and avascular. T/F

F

It is muscular and vascular.

85

Which structures does the ciliary body connect?

Choroid and iris

86

Which structure provides attachment for the lens?

Ciliary body

87

The contraction and relaxation of the muscle of the ciliary body controls what?

Thickness of the lens. Therefore, focus of the lens.

88

The folds on the internal surface of the ciliary body

Ciliary processes

89

What do the ciliary processes secrete?

Aqueous humor

90

Which structures secrete aqueous humor?

Ciliary processes

91

Which areas do the aqueous humor fill?

Anterior segment of the eyeball

92

Which structure lies on the anterior surface of the lens?

Iris

93

The thin contractile diaphragm with a central aperture that transmits light

Iris

94

Muscles that control the size of the pupil

Sphincter pupillae and dilator pupillae

95

The sphincter pupillae is radially arranged, while the dilator pupillae is circularly arranged. T/F

F

The sphincter is circular, the dilator is radial.

96

Parasympathetically stimulated involuntary muscle of the pupil

Sphincter pupillae

97

Sympathetically stimulated involuntary muscle of the pupil

Dilator pupillae

98

Muscle that increases size of pupil

Dilator pupillae

99

Muscles that decrease size of pupil

Sphincter pupillae

100

Sympathetic responses usually occur immediately, so the pupil immediately dilates. T/F

F

Sympathetic responses occur immediately, yet it may take up to 20 mins for the pupil to dilate.

101

Paraympathetic responses are usually slower than sympathetic responses yet parasympathetically stimulated papillary constriction is normally instantaneous. T/F

T

102

Part of the retina sensitive to light

Optic part

103

Layers of the optic part of the retina

Neural and pigmented layers

104

Light receptive layer of the optic part of the retina

Neural layer

105

The pigmented layer helps reduce the scattering of the light in the eyeball. T/F

T

106

The non-visual retina is the anterior continuation of what part of the retina?

Pigmented layer

107

The non-visual retina extends over which structure anteriorly and which structure posteiorly?

Anteriorly: ciliary body
Posteriorly: iris

108

Part of the retina over the ciliary body

Ciliary part of the retina

109

Part of the retina over the iris

Iridial part of the retina

110

Posterior part of the retina where light entering the eyeball focuses

Fundus of the eyeball (ocular fundus)

111

The distinctive circular area of the retina where sensory fibers and vessels of the optic nerve enter the eyeball

Optic disc

112

The optic disc has no photoreceptors. T/F

T

113

The optic disc is sensitive to light. T/F

F

Because it has no photoreceptors.

114

The blind spot of the retina

Optic disc

115

When does the macula lutea appear yellow?

When the light used to examine the retina is red-free.

116

Special photoreceptors on the macula lutea

Cones

117

Depression at the center of the macula lutea

Fovea centralis

118

The area for most acute vision

Fovea centralis

119

Diameter of fovea centralis

1.5 mm approximately

120

Center of the fovea centralis

Foveola

121

The foveola does not have the capillary network visible elsewhere deep to the retina. T/F

T

122

Where does the optic part of the retina terminate anteriorly?

Along the ora serrata

123

The irregular posterior border of the ciliary body where the optic part of the retina terminates

Ora serrata

124

The central artery of the retina is from which vessel?

Opthalmic artery

125

The central artery supplies the cones and rods of the retina. T/F

F

It supplies the retina except for the cones and rods.

126

From where do the cones and rods receive nutrients?

Choriocapillaris

127

Venous drainage of the the retina

Central vein of the retina

128

The primary refractory medium of the eyeball

Cornea

129

The cornea focuses an inverted image on what light-sensitive part of the retina?

Optic fundus

130

Boundaries of the anterior chamber of the eye

Anterior: cornea
Posterior: iris/pupil

131

Boundaries of the posterior chamber of the eye

Anterior: iris/pupil
Posterior: lens and ciliary body

132

Which structures do the aqueous humor nurish?

Cornea and lens

133

After passing through the pupil in the anterior chamber, where does the aqueous humor drain?

Scleral venous sinus

134

The aqueous humor is removed by the limbal plexus. T/F

T

135

The lumbal plaxus is a network of scleral veins close to the limbus. T/F

T

136

Into where does the limbal plexus drain?

Vorticose and anterior ciliary veins

137

Where is the lens located?

Posterior to the iris and anterior to the vitreous humor of the vitreaous body

138

The lens is biconcave. T/F

F

It is biconvex.

139

What anchors the capsule of the lens to the ciliary process?

Zonular fibers

140

The lens produces most refraction. T/F

F

It is the cornea that produces mos refraction.

141

The lens fine-tunes the focus of near or distant objects on the retina. T/F

T

142

What is the shape of the isolated unattached lens?

Almost spherical

143

Which structure changes the shape of the lens?

Ciliary muscle of the ciliary body

144

Without nerve stimulation, the diameter of the relaxed ciliary muscle is smaller. T/F

F

It is larger.

145

Less convex lens brings more distant objects in focus. T/F

T

146

Parasympathetic stimulation of the ciliary muscle?

Oculumotor nerve (CN III)

147

Parasympathetic response of the ciliary muscle

Sphincter-like contraction, reducing tension on lens

148

Relaxed lens is for near vision. T/F

T

149

The active process of changing the shape of the lens for near vision

Accommodation

150

The thickness of the lens increases with aging. T/F

T

151

People over 40 have difficulty in near vision. T/F

T

152

Functions of the virtreous humor

Transmits light, holds retina in place and supports lens

153

Where is the vitreous body found?

Posterior to the lens

154

Transparent jelly-like substance in the posterior four-fifths of the eyeball to the lens

Vitreous body

155

The watery fluid in the vitreous body

Vitreous humor

156

Other names for the posterior segment of the eyeball

Postremal or vitreous chamber

157

Extraocular muscles of the orbit

Levator palpebral superioris, the four recti (superior, infereior, medial, lateral), two obliques (superior, inferior)

158

Insertion of the levator palpebral superioris

Superior tarsus and skin of superior eyelid

159

Levator palpebral superioris is antagonistic to which muscle?

Superior half of orbicularis oculi

160

The drooping of the upper eyelid

Ptosis

161

Action of the levator palpebral superioris

Elevates superior eyelid

162

The origin of the four recti muscles

Common tendinous ring (annulus tendineus)

163

Insertion of the four recti muscles

Sclera, just posterior to corneoscleral junction

164

Actions of the superior rectus

Adduction, elevation, medial rotation of eyeball

165

Actions of the inferior rectus

Adduction, depression, lateral rotation of eyeball

166

Actions of the medial rectus

Adduction of the eyeball

167

Actions of the lateral rectus

Abduction of the eyeball

168

Muscles that adduct the eyeball

Superior, inferior, medial rectus muscles

169

Origin of the superior oblique

Body of sphenoid

170

The superior oblique is deep to what muscle?

Superior rectus

171

Insertion of the superior oblique muscle?

Sclera

172

Actions of the superior oblique

Abducts, depresses, medially rotates

173

When does the IR and SR produce only depression and elevation, respectively?

When the line of gaze coincides with the plane of the IR and SR, i.e., when the eyeball is abducted by the LR

174

Action of the superior oblique when acting alone

Medial rotation of the eyeball

175

Insertion of the inferior oblique

Sclera, between lateral rectus and inferior rectus

176

Action of the inferior oblique when acting alone

Lateral rotation of the eyeball

177

Actions of the inferior oblique

Elevates, abducts, laterally rotates eyeball

178

The only muscle to originate from the anterior part of the orbit, immediately lateral to the lacrimal fossa

Inferior oblique

179

Primary lateral rotator of the eyeball

Inferior oblique

180

Primary medial rotator of the eyeball

Superior oblique

181

Which direction should a person's gaze be directed to test the elevation and depression of the rectus muscles?

Lateral

182

Which direction should a person's gaze be directed to test the elevation and depression of the oblique muscles?

Medial

183

No single muscle can act to elevate the pupil directly from the primary position. T/F

T

184

No single muscle can act to depress the pupil directly from the primary position. T/F

T

185

Muscles that depress the eyeball

SO, IR

186

Muscles that elevate the eyeball

SR, IO

187

Adductors of the eyeball

MR, SR, IR

188

Abductors of the eyeball

SO, IO, LR

189

Lateral rotators of the eyeball

IR, IO

190

Medial rotators of the eyeball

SO, SR

191

Muscles that act when gazing to the right

Left MR, right LR

192

Muscles the act when gazing to the left

Right MR, left LR

193

Why is the superior eyelid further elevated out of the line of vision when the gaze is directed superiorly?

Because the superior rectus and the levator palpebral superioris share the same muscles sheath

194

The triangular expansions from the sheaths of the medial and lateral rectus ligaments

Medial and lateral check ligaments

195

To which bones are the check ligaments attached?

Lacrimal and zygomatic

196

Which actions do the check ligaments limit?

Adduction and abduction

197

The hammock-like sling from the blending of the check ligaments with the fascia of the IR and IO

Suspensory ligaments of the eyeball

198

The suspensory ligament of the eyeball is from the fascial sheath of which muscles?

IR, IO

199

Which structures act against the posterior pull on the eyeball produced by the rectus muscles?

Check ligaments, obliques and retrobulbar fat

200

CN II is part of the central nervous system. T/F

T

201

Where do the optic nerves begin?

Lamina cribrosa of the sclera

202

CN II exits the orbit via which structure?

Optic canal

203

Nerves of the orbit and the eyeball

CN II, CN III, CN IV, CN VI

204

Motor innervation of LR

CN VI

205

Motor innervation of SO

CN IV

206

Motor innervation of IO

CN III

207

Motor innervation of MR

CN III

208

Motor innervation of SR

CN III

209

Motor innervation of IR

CN III

210

Muscles innervated by CN IV

SO

211

Muscles innervated by CN VI

LR

212

Muscles innervated by CN III

IO, SR, IR, MR

213

Motor innervation of levator palpebral superioris

CN III

214

The oculomotor nerve divides into superior and inferior division. Which muscles are supplied by each division?

Superior: SR, levator palpebral superioris
Inferior: IR, MR, IO

215

Which nerve carries parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers to ciliary body and iris?

Short ciliary nerves

216

Short and long ciliary nerves are from which cranial nerve?

V1

217

Which nerve carries postsynaptic sympathetic fibers to the dilator pupillae and afferent fibers from the iris and cornea?

Long ciliary nerves

218

The blood supply of the orbit is mainly from which branch of the internal carotid artery and which branch of the external carotid?

Opthalmic artery, from internal carotid
Infra-orbita artery, from external carotid

219

The central artery of the retina is from which artery?

Opthalmic artery

220

Branches of the opthalmic artery that supply the choroid

Short posterior ciliary arteries

221

Branches of the opthalmic artery that supply the ciliary plexus

Long posterior ciliary arteries and anterior ciliary arteries

222

Venous drainage of the orbit

Superior and inferior opthalmic veins

223

The central vein of the retina enter directly the cavernous sinus. T/F

T

224

The vorticose veins drain into which vessel

Inferior opthalmic vein

225

Vascular structure through which the aqueous humor is returned to the blood circulation

Scleral venous sinus

226

227

228