Early Modern English Changes in Grammar Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Early Modern English Changes in Grammar Deck (24):
1

noun plurals:

used to be finished in EN but now finish in ES (example Brethren was replaced by brothers

2

what happened to "you":

phase 1: old and middle english NOMINATIVE singular: "thou" plural: "ye", ACCUSATIVE singular "thee" and plural "you"
- Different forms for singular and plural and for subject and object

Phase 2: NOMINATIVE singular "thou", plural and polite" "ye", ACCUSATIVE singular "thee" and plural and polite "you"
Possibly due to French influence (tu vs. vous), the ye / you forms became used also as singular polite
forms.

phase 3: (early modern) NOMINATIVE singular "thou", plural and polite "you", ACCUSATIVE singular "thee", plural and polite "you"

phase 4: "you", "you", "you", "you"

3

The nobility & upper classes used _____ with each other and _______ with lower classes

ye / you, thou / thee

4

The –er and –est inflections were inherited from :

Germanic: (German: laut, lauter, lautest)

5

Forms with more and most had been used sparingly previously but gained momentum in Early
Modern English.
- Initially, the two were used :

together for emphasis: In EME, the following were possible: more lovelier, famousest, worser
themost straitest sect, the most Highest

6

More frequent use of prepositions to express sentence functions to compensate for :

loss of inflectional
endings

7

what kind of negation was common?

double negation

8

However, double negation continued until the:

eighteenth century

9

when did the dummy DO first appear, where and why?

around 1400 in the south, perhaps as a literary devise to facilitate rhyme.

10

what kind of verbs were more common in Old, Middle, and Early Modern English:

* Impersonal verbs like It dislikes me. = It displeases me; I dislike it

11

Impersonal verbs largely _____ in Early Modern English. EXCEPT:

disappeared, methinks

12

* Third person singular present tense -s: information

- The –s form is from the north (East Midlands)
- The –th form is from the south (West Saxon)

13

what became the spelling authority ?

Samuel Johnson’s 1755 dictionary

14

Attempts at normalization
- Hart (1551): (3 things)

- Capitalization at the beginning of a sentence
- Capitalization with proper names
- Capitalization with important common nouns

15

Attempts at normalization - Bullokar (1580):

37 letters – regular letters with diacritics

16

Attempts at normalization Mulcaster: (1582)

a list of recommended spellings for 9,000 words

17

Samuel Johnson His spellings are not totally consistent: examples

convey/inveigh and fancy/phantom

18

- False etymologies: thought to be derived from Latin ad- prefix but actually not examples:

advance, avance, advantage, avantage

19

- A few other archaic features which were preserved in spelling but no longer pronounced:

- k & gh in knight
- t in castle
- w in wrong, write
- ng in both singer /sɪŋər/ and finger /fɪŋgər/
- final –b after m: thumb, dumb
- -l- before certain consonants: talk, half, salve, walk, calf

20

who Wanted to make American spelling distinct?

Noah Webster

21

what did Noah Webster make?

An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828)

22

In the absence of an academy, who set themselves up as authorities?

self-proclaimed experts

23

difference between prescriptivism and descriptivism:

PRES: how the language should be, DESC: how the language is

24

the most widely used grammar of English until the twentieth century:

the grammar of Robert Lowth (England)