Flashcards in Early Modern English Changes in Grammar Deck (24):
used to be finished in EN but now finish in ES (example Brethren was replaced by brothers
what happened to "you":
phase 1: old and middle english NOMINATIVE singular: "thou" plural: "ye", ACCUSATIVE singular "thee" and plural "you"
- Different forms for singular and plural and for subject and object
Phase 2: NOMINATIVE singular "thou", plural and polite" "ye", ACCUSATIVE singular "thee" and plural and polite "you"
Possibly due to French influence (tu vs. vous), the ye / you forms became used also as singular polite
phase 3: (early modern) NOMINATIVE singular "thou", plural and polite "you", ACCUSATIVE singular "thee", plural and polite "you"
phase 4: "you", "you", "you", "you"
The nobility & upper classes used _____ with each other and _______ with lower classes
ye / you, thou / thee
The –er and –est inflections were inherited from :
Germanic: (German: laut, lauter, lautest)
Forms with more and most had been used sparingly previously but gained momentum in Early
- Initially, the two were used :
together for emphasis: In EME, the following were possible: more lovelier, famousest, worser
themost straitest sect, the most Highest
More frequent use of prepositions to express sentence functions to compensate for :
loss of inflectional
what kind of negation was common?
However, double negation continued until the:
when did the dummy DO first appear, where and why?
around 1400 in the south, perhaps as a literary devise to facilitate rhyme.
what kind of verbs were more common in Old, Middle, and Early Modern English:
* Impersonal verbs like It dislikes me. = It displeases me; I dislike it
Impersonal verbs largely _____ in Early Modern English. EXCEPT:
* Third person singular present tense -s: information
- The –s form is from the north (East Midlands)
- The –th form is from the south (West Saxon)
what became the spelling authority ?
Samuel Johnson’s 1755 dictionary
Attempts at normalization
- Hart (1551): (3 things)
- Capitalization at the beginning of a sentence
- Capitalization with proper names
- Capitalization with important common nouns
Attempts at normalization - Bullokar (1580):
37 letters – regular letters with diacritics
Attempts at normalization Mulcaster: (1582)
a list of recommended spellings for 9,000 words
Samuel Johnson His spellings are not totally consistent: examples
convey/inveigh and fancy/phantom
- False etymologies: thought to be derived from Latin ad- prefix but actually not examples:
advance, avance, advantage, avantage
- A few other archaic features which were preserved in spelling but no longer pronounced:
- k & gh in knight
- t in castle
- w in wrong, write
- ng in both singer /sɪŋər/ and finger /fɪŋgər/
- final –b after m: thumb, dumb
- -l- before certain consonants: talk, half, salve, walk, calf
who Wanted to make American spelling distinct?
what did Noah Webster make?
An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828)
In the absence of an academy, who set themselves up as authorities?
difference between prescriptivism and descriptivism:
PRES: how the language should be, DESC: how the language is