Early Modern English Vocabulary Summary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Early Modern English Vocabulary Summary Deck (38):
1

with The Renaissance came Renewed interest in:

classical (Latin and Greek) languages and literatures

2

in the Renaissance, Scientific texts were still written in :

Latin

3

Exploration by European nations to:

other parts of the world

4

Discovery of many new

foods and phenomena

5

)________were needed to talk about them

new words

6

Influx of :

thousands of new words into English

7

Counter trend:

: the Reformation

8

: the Reformation:

access to scriptures in the vernacular language

9

aim of the reformation:

to reach mass audience with accessible language

10

In EME, borrowings from Latin far outnumbered those from all other languages. Reason:

Latin was the language of scholarship and science up to the eighteenth century.

11

Works in philosophy and science were written mostly in ____. Example:

Latin, Newton’s Principia (1689)

12

English equivalents were not available for many of the new scientific terms.
- Translators used:

the Latin or Greek terms

13

influx of Latin words examples:

integer, genius, vertigo, folio, exit, area, premium, specimen, series, census, medium,
species, militia, virus, album, complex, minimum, stimulus, status

14

influx of greek words examples:

anachronism, anonymous, anarchy, heptagon, archaeology, enthusiast, epigraph,
diagnostic, apocalypse

15

Words formed from Greek and Latin roots:

atmosphere,
barometer, biosphere, electrolysis, invertebrate, microspecies, synchrotron, zoology

16

Words from French:

accent, anatomy, bizarre, chocolate, detail, elegance, equip, erosion, exist,
entrance, grotesque, invite, muscle, pioneer, ticket, volunteer

17

Words from Italian:

balcony, carnival, design, giraffe, lottery, macaroni, opera, sonata, violin,
volcano, umbrella

18

Words from Spanish and Portuguese:

alligator, banana, cargo, cockroach, embargo, flamingo,
guitar, hurricane, molasses, mosquito

19

Words from German:

cobalt, hamster, paraffin, plunder, quartz, vitamin, zinc

20

Words from Dutch:

cruise, dock, dollar, easel, knapsack, landscape, yacht

21

Words from Indic:

punch, guru, dungaree, bungalow

22

Words from Iranian languages:

shah, dervish, caravan, shawl

23

* Disadvantage of so many borrowings from Greek and Latin:

Their meanings are not immediately evident to native speakers.

24

* advantage of so many borrowings from Greek and Latin:

They are understandable internationally.
- They were borrowed into many other languages as well.

25

effects of so many borrowings:

A large number of synonyms for use in different registers (popular (OE), Formal (french), intellectual (Latin))

26

pairs of cognate words borrowed at different times from the same language or from different languages:

doublets

27

Loanwords often retained their :

original plural forms:

28

- Loanwords often retained their original plural forms (result?)

– a lot more irregular plurals.

29

* “Inkhorn” terms:

- Some writers used Latin terms excessively.
- They were criticized for their pomposity.
- The terms were labeled “inkhorn” terms because they came from the inkhorn and not from any real
need.

30

Some of these pompous “inkhorns” didn’t survive:

furibund = furious
lubrical = smooth
oblatrant = reviling
turgidous = puffed up

31

Some of these pompous “inkhorns” survived:

defunct, spurious, reciprocal, strenuous, retrograde

32

Compounding:

Putting two (or more) words together to form one

33

examples of kennings:

sæweall (sea wall), sciprāp (ship rope), nihtwaco (night watch)

34

Whether a compound is written as one word (flowerpot), a hyphenated word (flower-pot), or two
words (flower pot) is a matter of:

convention, preference, and time.

35

- Some other common Latin and Greek prefixes, suffixes and roots borrowed:

bio-, contra-, -graph, hydro-, macro-, mono-, morph-, phono-, tele-, thermo-

36

Some common Latin roots in English:

spec(t), vert, port, duc, press

37

What is the derivational suffix? What does it do?

They (usually) change a word from one type to another.

38

- Inflectional suffixes:

They add grammatical information to the word: person, number, case.
tense,…