when was a theory developed about earth’s landmasses and by who?
1912 / Alfred Wegner
what was the land formations millions of years ago?
attached together in one continental form
what was the continental form called?
what is the continental drift theory?
over time, the landmasses drifted apart to form the present day shape and location of the continents
what causes convection currents?
uneven temperatures in the earth
heat from the core is brought to the ________ via _________
asthenosphere / conduction
what happens to the heat after it is brought to the asthenosphere?
it enters a cycle of convection to heat the upper mantle
what does the cycle of heat provide?
energy to move the plates
what are the three types of plate movement?
divergent / convergent / transform
what is divergent movement?
two plates move apart from each other
what is convergent movement?
the plates push against each other
what is transform movement?
two plates slide past each other
what is the thickness of earth’s crust?
what is the feeling of earth’s crust?
cold / fragile
what is the earth’s crust made of?
granite / basal
what is earth’s outer core’s temperature?
3000-4000 degrees Celsius
what is the thickness of earth’s outer core?
what is earth’s outer core made of?
liquid nickel / liquid iron
what is the thickness of earth’s mantle?
what is the feeling of earth’s mantle?
hot / molten
what is earth’s mantle made of?
magnesium / silicon
what is earth’s inner core’s temperature?
5000-6000 degrees Celsius
what is the thickness of earth’s inner core?
what is earth’s inner core made of?
solid nickel / solid iron
what are the 8 layers of earth, from the inside out
solid iron core liquid iron core lower mantle upper mantle asthenosphere lithosphere oceanic crust continental crust
what does Pangaea mean in greek?
what is Pangaea Ultima?
a possible future continent configuration