Ecology Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ecology Vocab Deck (54):
1

study of interactions of organisms with each other and the physical environment

ecology

2

all the members of the same species

population

3

all the populations found in a particular area

community

4

a community and its physical environment, including both abiotic and biotic components

ecosystem

5

all the communities on earth whose members exist in air and water and on land

biosphere

6

the place where an organism lives

habitat

7

the number of individuals per unit area

population density

8

the pattern of dispersal of individuals across an area of interest

population distribution

9

abiotic and biotic components of an environment that support living organisms

resources

10

environmental aspects that particularly determine where an organism lives

limiting factors

11

the statistical study of a population, such as its density, distribution, or rate of growth, which is dependent on factors such as morality pattern and age distribution

demography

12

the species composition of a community; a listing of various species found in that community

species richness

13

includes species richness and evenness(relative abundance of the different species

species diversity

14

a particular place where a species lives and reproduces

habitat

15

the role a species plays in its community

ecological niche

16

comprised of all the abiotic conditions under which a species could survive when adverse biotic conditions are absent

fundamental niche

17

comprised of conditions under which a species does survive when adverse biotic interactions, such as competition and predation, are present

realized niche

18

no two species can indefinitely occupy the same niche at at the same time

competitive exclusion principle

19

decreases competition between two species, leading to increased niche specialization and less niche overlap

resource partitioning

20

a living organism that feeds on another

predator

21

a living organism that gets fed on by another

prey

22

the ability to blend into the background

camoflauge

23

when one species resembles another that possesses an overt antipredator defense

mimicry

24

an organism that derives nourishment from another

parasite

25

an organism that parasites derive nourishment from

host

26

an association in which at least one of the species is dependent on the other

symbiosis

27

abundance of one species increases, and the other is not affected

commensalism

28

abundance of both species increases

mutualism

29

a change involving a series of species replacements in a community

ecological succession

30

the first species to begin secondary succession

pioneer species

31

occurs in areas where there is no soil formation

primary succession

32

occurs in an area where soil is present

secondary succession

33

require only inorganic nutrients and an outside energy source to produce organic nutrients for their own use and for all the other members of a community

autotrophs

34

photosynthetic organism at the start of the food chain that makes its own food

producer

35

chemosynthetic autotrophic bacteria

chemoautotrophs

36

need a preformed source of organic nutrients as the acquire food from a different (hetero) source

heterotroph

37

the consume food generated by a producer

consumer

38

animals that graze directly on plants or algae

herbivores

39

feed on other animals

carnivores

40

animals that feed on both animals and plants

omnivores

41

organisms that feed on detritus (decomposing particles of organic matter)

detritivores

42

organism that breaks down organic matter into inorganic nutrients that can be recycled for the environment

decomposer

43

energy can neither be created nor destroyed

first law of thermodynamics

44

with every transformation some energy is degraded into a less available form such as heat

second law of thermodynamics

45

a diagram describing trophic relationships

food web

46

a level of nourishment within a food chain or web

trophic level

47

diagrams that show single path of energy flow in an ecosystem

food chain

48

the flow of energy with large losses between successive trophic levels is sometimes depicted as this

ecological pyramid

49

the number of organisms multiplied by the dry weight of the organic matter within one organism

biomass

50

10% of the energy in one trophic level is available to the next

rule of 10's

51

water cycle

hydrologic cycle

52

the amount of a substance that moves from one component of the environment to another within a specified period of time

transfer rate

53

overenrichment

eutrophication

54

organisms that carry out photon capture to acquire energy. They use the energy from light to carry out various cellular metabolic processes

phototrophs