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Flashcards in FINAL genetics Deck (48):
1

alternative forms of a gene which occur at the same locus on homologous chromosomes

allele

2

an allele that hides the expression of a recessive allele

dominant allele

3

the genes if an organism for a particular trait or traits

genotype

4

specific location of a particular gene

gene locus

5

visible expression of a genotype

phenotype

6

possessing two identical alleles for a trait

homozygous

7

possessing two unlike alleles for a trait

heterozygous

8

grid that allows one to calculate the results of simple genetic crosses

punnett square

9

an allele thats expression is masked by a dominant allele

recessive allele

10

corss between an individual with the dominant phenotype and on with the recessive phenotype

test cross

11

stamen consists of

anther, filament

12

pistil consists of

stigma, style, ovary

13

which old theory described a red flower being crossed with a white flower and the offspring being pink

blending theory of inheritance

14

3:1 ratios found when performing what type of crosses

monohybrid crosses

15

gametes of (TtGG) (TtGg)

(TG,tG) (TG, Tg, tG, tg)

16

state whether it is a gamete or a genotype: (Tg) (WwCc) (Tr) (G)

gamete, genotype, gamete, gamete

17

SsBbxSsBb, how many will have a smooth black coat?

9 of 16

18

RrTtxrrtt, how many tall with red fruit

25%

19

in blood types, AB blood is an example of what type if dominance

codominance

20

down syndrome is an example of what type if nondisjunction

trisomy

21

how many chromosomes are autosomes in humans

22

22

when neither allele is fully dominant

incomplete dominance

23

gene that affects more than one characteristic of an individual (ie marfans syndrome)

pleitropy

24

t/f the environment has no effect on the phenotype of an organism

false

25

permanent changes in genes or chromosomes than can be passed on to offspring

mutation

26

term used to describe improper separation of chromosomes during meiosis

nondisjunction

27

occurs when a segment of a chromosome is turned 180°

inversion

28

doubling of a chromosomal segment

duplication

29

movement of a chromosomal segment from one chromosome to another

translocation

30

what would be the genotype of sex chromosomes in an individual with two barr bodies

XXX

31

members of one pair of factors separate independently of members or another pair of factors therefore all possible combinations of factors can occur in the gametes

law of independent assortment

32

what are the possible blood types the offspring of a cross between individuals that are type AB and O

A or B

33

9:3:3:1 is expected when

gene pairs assort independently during meiosis

34

what is mitosis

replication - maintainin chromosome number to keep sizew

35

why do cells divide

to maintain surface area to volume ratio

36

how many chromosomes does a human body cell have

46

37

where do you get your chromosomes from

mother and father

38

how many copies do you have of each gene in your genome

2

39

the members of each pair of chromosomes in diploid cells are called

homologous pairs

40

purpose of meiosis in animal cells

make sperm/eggs for reproduction

41

what happens to chromosome number during meiosis

cuts in 1/2-46 to 23

42

in plants meiosis produces

haploid spores

43

after fertilization of a sperm and egg what is produced

zygote

44

the process by which chromosomes exchange genes is known as

crossing over

45

what phase of meiosis does crossing over occur

prophase

46

how many chromosomes does a primary spermatocyte contain

46

47

in humans how many chromosomes are contained in the first polar body

46

48

how many sperm are produced due to meiosis in spermatogenesis

4