FINAL viruses Flashcards Preview

Biology > FINAL viruses > Flashcards

Flashcards in FINAL viruses Deck (32):
1

viruses are composed of which two molecules

nucleic acids and proteins

2

difference between lytic and latent infections

lytic- active (replicating and killing cells)
latent- dormant

3

process that viruses perform to convert RNA to DNA is termed

reverse transcription

4

which enzyme to viruses use to do reverse transcription

reverse transcriptase

5

only protection from viruses

vaccines

6

t/f viruses can only be seen by the light microscope

false

7

what organisms are the incubator for pandemic strains id influenza

pig and ducks

8

what are he two branches of the immune system

nonspecific defense and specific defenses

9

which cells are involved in directly attacking an antigen

t cells

10

which cells produce antibodies

b cells

11

how does influenza pass from person to person

airborne, water droplets

12

200 years ago an english doctor named _____ used the idea of vaccines

jenner

13

what virus did jenner use to vaccinate a young boy against small pox

cow pox

14

what is the benefit to a vaccine

immunity to viruses

15

why dies immunity to a particular antigen often decline after a period if several yeArs; how to reestablish the immune response

memory cells die; revaccinate

16

three possible methods for preparing a vaccine to a specific virus

similar organism, dead organism, piece of an organism

17

what scientist coined the term virus

pasteur

18

what scientist confirmed that something other than bacteria was infecting tobacco plants

ivanovsky

19

what did the above scientist do to determine something other than bacteria was causing the infection

tried to filter the virus, still infected after filtration

20

three ways viruses are classified

envelope, type of nucleic acid, size and shape

21

order of molecule in a positive ELISA test for ebola

ebola viral proteins, Ab, second ab with enzyme, substrate

22

what test could be used for an unknown virus that comes up negative on all known ELISA tests; what does this test for instead of antibodies

molecular subtraction, genome

23

difference between genetic drift and shift; which could lead to a pandemic

drift-small mutations
shift-severe change (pandemic)

24

why are vaccines a victim of their own success

work so well that people focus on risks, not the disease its preventing

25

what is an equilibrium virus

been in a population for a long time

26

what is a non equilibrium virus

new virus

27

viruses consist of nucleic acids covered by a coat of ____

proteins

28

viruses, unlike bacteria, are not composed of ___

cells

29

the only life function viruses can perform is __

reproduction

30

protection against some viral diseases can be produced by___

vaccines

31

a vaccine is made of a ____ form of the virus

weakened

32

two natural defenses the body has against viruses are ___ and ___

antibodies and interferon