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Flashcards in EEG & Sleep - Ruff Deck (11):

What kinds of waves occur in the EEG when your eyes are closed? eyes open and actively thinking?
Slow-wave sleep?
REM sleep?

Eyes open - beta
eyes closed - alpha
Drowsy/Meditate - Theta
Slow wave sleep - Delta
REM - beta

beta is very high frequency and low amplitude
As you move into a more relaxed state, the amplitude increases and frequency decreases


What are the sleep and wake stages?


4 stages of non-REM sleep



What is interesting or paradoxical about REM sleep?

You get beta waves on the EEG which is like being awake
You have rapid eye movements, saccades


What happens to a person with sleep apnea?

They dont get any quality sleep because whenever the body drifts into sleep, the soft palate collapses and cuts off the airway. The body wakes itself up and then you do it over again


What is going on with sleep spindles and waves?

Reticular cell of the thalamus send inhibition to the thalamus...........


What does ARAS stand for?
What does it do?

Ascending Reticular Activating System
-Promotes wakefulness


What is produced in the lateral hypthalamus?


Orexin - promotes arousal

MCH (melanin-concentrating hormone) - promotes REM sleep


What is the function of the preoptic area?

The preoptic area promotes sleep through GABA and Galanin inhibition


EEG activity in the brain during wakefulness and REM sleep is dependent on inhibitory projections from the pons onto the:

reticular nucleus of the thalamus

(remember the reticular nucleus has one big job, inhibit the thalamus at large!)


REM sleep is similar to wakefulness except you have inhibition of motor movement.
How does this occur in the body?

The Lateral Hypothalmus excites the ventromedial medulla --> VM medulla inhibits motor neurons

Lateral hypothalamus also inhibits the LC/Raphe, (The REM off system). LC/Raphe can no longer activate motor neurons.


One interesting hypothesis about the need for sleep is "Metabolite clearance." What makes sense about this hypothesis?

Accounts for loss of cognitive function with lack of sleep

-Makes sense why you can't bank sleep (that would be nice)

-Restorative function even in brief bouts of sleep

-Also some think accumulation of circulating factors promotes sleepiness