EEMB 3: Animals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EEMB 3: Animals Deck (179):
2

What feature distinguish animals from everything else

they are ALL multicellular

3

T/F: Animals can consume organic and inorganic compounds

FALSEonly organic compounds

4

Animals lack the ability to form ____ from inorganic compounds. In other words all animals are ____

organic compounds (heterotrophs)

5

Animals digest compounds _____ and this is is highly variable.

internally

6

Animals are mostly classified by ____

they way they digest nutrients

7

Motion is relative to what?

the way animals feed

8

What must be expended for an animal to feed

energy

9

What is asymmetrical body like? (Example)

A body with no distinguishable pattern ex: sponge

10

What is radial symmetry? (Example)

Circular (symmetry from any angle)ex: sea anemones

11

What is biradial symmetry? (Example)

2 sets of symmetry from any angleex: sea star

12

What is bilateral symmetry? (Example)

One line of symmetry going along the length of the bodyex: fish/humans

13

Locomotion has lead to the development of unique _____ systems and ___

sensory systemsbehaviour

14

The most probable ancestor of all animals is a ______

colonial protist (choanoflagellates)

15

The metazoan lineage is _______

monophyletic

16

Remeber, phylogenies are ______ of related ness

estimates

17

Phylogenies are made using ____ or _____ data, with many different _____ combined

mophological or molecular datadifferent approaches combined

18

Monophyly of animals is supported by what type of factors?

Molecular/genetic factors

19

Animals have sequence similarities in what?

5S and 18S ribosomal RNAs

20

Animals share similarities in what genes?

Hox genes

21

All animals share a similarity in _____ interactions

cell-cell

22

All animals have a common set of _____ (Example?)

extracellular matrix molecules(such as collagen)

23

Phylum Porifera contains the ______ and are referred to as ________ animals.

The spongesLoosely organized animals

24

What animals were separated early in the lineage?

Sponges

25

Sponges are ____, which means they attach to the bottom substrate of the environment

benthic

26

Sponges are ____ which means they don't move.

Sessile

27

What structure of sponges are its key feature?

Its cell types

28

Symmetry of phylum porifera organisms

asymmetrical

29

The cellular organization of phylum porifera are ____ and lack ____ level organization

unusualtissue level

30

3 types of phylum porifera

Desmosponges (most common)Glass SpongesCalcareous sponges

31

Aprox. how many species in phylum porifera

9000

32

T/F: Sponges are also found in fresh water

True, but only a few

33

T/F: Sponges not are found at all depths

FALSE, they are

34

The body of the sponge is mainly composed of a loose aggregation of cells surrounding a ____

water canal system

35

T/F: there is a certain opening in sponges that is the "mouth"

FALSE , no mouth

36

T/F: The feeding system of sponges is a multi- way movement of water

FALSE, one way

37

The specialized feeding cells of sponges are called what and what do they do?

Choanocytes-move water into the animal using a flagellum

38

Water in sponges exit via

the osculum

39

The supporting structure that helps sponges stay rigid are called ____.

spicules (supporting spines)

40

T/F: Sponges have skeletons

FALSE, only structure support provided by spicules

41

Five cell types of sponges

Choano-cyteArchaeo-cytePinaco-cytesPoro-cyteSclero-cyte

42

What are the function of Sclerocytes?

to make the spicules

43

What is the function of archaeocytes?

digestion (contain enzymes)

44

What is the function of the Pinacocytes?

The "skin" of the sponge (tough and leathery)

45

What is the function of the Porocytes?

control water flow by contraction

46

The flagellum of the choanocytes are on the exterior and interior of the sponge?

interior

47

In Choanocytes the central flagellum is surrounded by a collar of ______ which is the major site of ______

microvillimajor site of absorption

48

What processes ingests and deliver nutrients through out the sponge body? How do they deliver it?

Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis-deliver by food vacuoles

49

What 3 types of materials are spicules made out of?

Calcium carbonateSilicaSpongin (organic protein-like substance)

50

T/F: Sponges don't have the capacity to be ecologically dominant

FALSE they can conquer all

51

Body shape of sponges correlate to

habitat/environment

52

Body shape of sponges correlate to

habitat/environment

53

Name the classes in phylum Cnidaria and examples

Antho-zoans - coral/sea anemonesScypho-zoans - jellyfishHydro-zoanCuba-zoan

54

What is the next "split" in the monophylogenic tree for animals after porifera?

Cnidaria

55

Changes in body plan from sponges

two embryonic cell layersdistinct organ systems

56

Cnidarians are mostly found in what type of environment

marine

57

All cnidarians have basic ____ symmetry

radial

58

Cnidarians have ___ cell layers of living tissue and what are they?

Two-epidermis and gastrodermis

59

Cnidarians have a middle ___ layer called the ___

gelatinous layermesoglea

60

What surrounds the mouth of Cnidarians?

Tentacles

61

T/F: Cnidarians have two openings to the digestive system

FALSE (no anus)

62

2 references to the digestive system of the Cnidarians are the _____ cavity and ______

Gastrovascular cavity"blind gut"

63

What structure do Cnidarians use for stinging?

Nematocysts

64

Describe the mobility of Cnidarians

some swimsome are stationary

65

Cnidarians are _____ carnivores

simple

66

Cnidarians have a ____ metabolic rate which allow them to live in poor nutrient and cold waters

low metabolic rate

67

How is the nervous system organized in Cnidarians

It is not (radiating non centralized net)

68

The tentacles on Cnidarians are for

feedingsensory

69

Cnidarians can be referred to as a "____ with _____"

"gut with tentacles"

70

Name the 3 purposes of the gastrovascular cavity (Cnidarians)

digestiongas exchangecirculation

71

Cnidarians lack a _____ system

circulatory system

72

Large Cnidarians can have a highly branched _____ due to lack of circulatory system

Gastrovascular cavity

73

Cnidarians have ___ cells with ____ fibers that allow movement

epithelial cells with muscle fibers

74

How do Cnidarians "circulate" fluid/nutrients

diffusion

75

What structure in the gastovascular cavity in Cnidarians contain digestive enxymes

the gastroderm

76

Outside to inside of a Cndarian

epidermis - cnidocysts - mesoglea - gastrodermis - gastrovascular cavity

77

The stinging cells of Cnidarians are called

cnidocytes

78

Cnidocytes eject a ____ that injects toxins

nematocytes

79

Unlike sponges cnidarians have nerves and ____

muscles

80

The first animal in the lineage to have muscles

Cnidarians

81

T/F: Cndarians have a true nervous system

nope

82

Describe the nerve organization of Cnidarians

mesh of decentralized nerves in a network

83

Cnidarians have a _____ skeletal system

hydrostatic

84

Two life stages of cnidarians

polyp and medusa

85

4 main groups of Cnidarians

scypho-zoansantho-zoanshydro-zoanscuba-zoans

86

Scyphozoans are phlyum ____ and are the _____

cnidariajellyfish

87

Anthozoans are phylum ____ and are ____

cnidariacoral and sea anemone

88

Hydrozoans are phylum ___ and are ____

cnidariahydras

89

Cubazoans are phylum ___ and are ____

cnidarianbox jellies

90

Another name for jellyfish are ____ animals

"G-cup"

91

T/F: jellyfish are all marine

True

92

look at slide 11 lecture 2

jellyfish life cycle

93

Which class contain the only freshwater cndarians?

Hydrozoa

94

Hydras are ____ in motion and _____ swimmers

Sessilecolonial swimmers

95

look at lecture 2 slide 13 for

zooids

96

Anthozoans are sometimes referred to as _____ animals

flower

97

Anthozoans include what types of animals

corals and sea anemones

98

The reef building organisms

Coral

99

The spatially dominant animal in reefs

coral

100

How do corals grow?

vegetative propagation of polyps

101

What gives coral their color? (casual and scientific name)

Dinoflagellates (zoozanthellae)

102

Endosymbiotic relationship with cnidarians (color)

Dinoflagellates (zoozanthallae)

103

Tropical stone?

Reef buidling/ calcium carbonate skeleton

104

Life cycle of corals (4 stages)

larvae (planula) -> coral spat -> juvenile corals --> adult coral

105

Cnidarians get ___ and ____ benefits while the dinoflagellates gain ____ and ____

trophic and nutritionalshelter and sunlight

106

Corals have a relatively small ____ in relationship to their _____ effect

biomassecological effect

107

The keystone species of reefs

coral

108

What is coral bleaching?

when dinoflagellates leave or are reduced

109

What color are coral when they are bleached

white

110

2 reasons for coral bleaching

stress responseadaptive bleaching hypothesis (ABH)

111

What is adaptive bleaching hypothesis

switching out old symbionts for new, better ones "high risk"

112

Corals are referred to as ecosystem _____

engineers!

113

Cubozoa include what type of animals

box jellyfish

114

What are the differences between jellyfish and box jellies

box jellies have eyes and only 4 tentacles

115

The "sea wasps" of Australia are what class?

Cubozoa - box jellies

116

The one phylum separate from Cnidaria that are close to them

Phylum Ctenophora

117

Another name for Ctenophores

comb jellies

118

What are the major differences between Ctenopores and Cnidarians

complete gut (2 openings)no nematocytesall marine

119

How do ctenophores feed?

sticky ctene (cilia) projections (8 rows)

120

Ctenes posses how many rows of ctenes?

8 rows

121

What are ctenes?

cilia-like projections

122

What layer of tissue does muscle come in?

mesoderm

123

Two major animal lineages

ProtostomesDeuterostomes

124

Two lineages of protostomes

LophotrochozoansEcdysozoans

125

Flatworms are what group in lophotrochozoans?

Platyhelminthes

126

Ribbon worms are what group in lophotrochozoans?

Nemertea

127

Segmented worms are what group in lophotrochozoans?

Annelids

128

Roundworms are what group in Ecdysozoans?

Nematodes

129

What do Platyhelminthes, Nemerteans, Annelids, and Nematodes have in common?

They are all worms and all have members that are parasites

130

Distinguishing characteristic of platyhleminthes

flat

131

The simplest animals with bilateral symmetry

Flatworms (platyhelminthes)

132

How to flatworms move?

cilia on the ventral side

133

_____ is a key way for flatworms to perform bodily functions

Diffusion

134

T/F: flatworms have a blind gut

True

135

Simple classes of flatworms (4)

Turbellaria - planariansTrematoda - flukesMonogeneaCestoda

136

Which type of flatworms are specifically parasitic?

Cestoda

137

The attachment structure of cestoda

the scolex

138

The segements/pieces of the cestodas are called

proglottids (contain eggs and such)

139

Nemerteas (ribbon worms) are ____ -bodied and un- _____

soft-bodiedun--segmented

140

Ribbon worms, unlike flatworms have a _____ gut and anus

complete gut and anus

141

The simplest animal with a circulatory system

Ribbon worms (nemerteas)

142

The special feeding organ of ribbon worms (nemerteas; defining characteristic)

Proboscis

143

The proboscis (of ribbon worm/nemertea) is a ______ feeding organ which is _____ from the worm

hollow feeding organejected from the worm

144

The defining structures of ribbon worms (nemerteas)

Probosics Rhynchocoel

145

What acts as the hydrostatic skeleton for nemerteas (ribbon worms)

body wall "muscles" and rhynochocoel

146

T/F: Nemerteans are not effective burrowers

FALSE

147

Nemerteans are carnivores, herbivores, or both?

Carnivores

148

How do nemberteans feed?

Shoot the proboscies out of the body and use toxins/mucous to immobilize and wind in prey

149

Segmented worms are ____. Segmented means

Annelids-bodies are series of repeating segments

150

What controls each segment in annelids?

ganglion (nerves!)

151

How doe annelids stay moist?

gas exchange across body wall

152

Annelids have little kidneys called

Nephridia

153

Defining characteristic of annelids=

1+ pair of chitinous setae per segment

154

The 4 classes of annelids

Poly-chaetes (marine)Oligo-chaetes (mostly freshwater, earthworm)Hiurdinea - leechesPogonophora - deep sea

155

Exclusively marine worms are called

polychaetes

156

A majority of annelids are what class?

Polychaetes

157

Polychaetes use what for movement?

Parapodia (flat outgrowths, vascular)

158

T/F: polychaetes do not have the possibility to burrow

FALSE

159

The class of annelids that are all hermaphroditic

ologochaetes

160

Leeches belong under the what class of annelids?

Hirudinea

161

The only Ecdysozoan worms we are studying are ___

nematodes (round worms)

162

The only worms/animals with cuticles are

nematodes (round worms)

163

4 major groups of mollsks are

chitonsgastropodsbivalvescephalopods

164

Mollusks are in what lineage of animals?

Proteosomes -> lophotrochozoans

165

T/F: There is a body standard for being a mollusk?

FALSEthey got dissimilar body shapes (no "typical" mollusk)

166

Structure mollusks use for locomotion/clinging

the muscular foot

167

Mollusks have what structure that secretes a calcareous shell?

the mantel

168

What is it called when the mollusks have all organs centralized in one body area?

visceral mass

169

Mollusks have ____ that are used for feeding but are missing in bivalves

radula

170

Describe the mollusks body plan (4 things)

shellgreatly reduced coelomcomplete digestive systemopen circulatory system (except in cephalpods)

171

Another name for chitons?

Polyplacs

172

Describe the distinctive shell of chitons (polyplacs)

8 overlapping articulated plates

173

The structure of that acts as a suction cup in chitons is called

the girdle

174

How do chitons feed?

they are grazers

175

The thin material used to keep the snail from drying out is called the

operculum

176

Muscles have ___ instead of radula for feeding

gills

177

The only cephalopod with a shell is the

Nautilus

178

What 2 things make cephalopods super unique to mollusks

close circulatory systemlarge differentiated brain

179

What do cephalopods use to change color?

chromataphores

180

Along with chromataphores, squids also have ___ that give them bioluminescence

photophores