What feature distinguish animals from everything else
they are ALL multicellular
T/F: Animals can consume organic and inorganic compounds
FALSEonly organic compounds
Animals lack the ability to form ____ from inorganic compounds. In other words all animals are ____
organic compounds (heterotrophs)
Animals digest compounds _____ and this is is highly variable.
Animals are mostly classified by ____
they way they digest nutrients
Motion is relative to what?
the way animals feed
What must be expended for an animal to feed
What is asymmetrical body like? (Example)
A body with no distinguishable pattern ex: sponge
What is radial symmetry? (Example)
Circular (symmetry from any angle)ex: sea anemones
What is biradial symmetry? (Example)
2 sets of symmetry from any angleex: sea star
What is bilateral symmetry? (Example)
One line of symmetry going along the length of the bodyex: fish/humans
Locomotion has lead to the development of unique _____ systems and ___
The most probable ancestor of all animals is a ______
colonial protist (choanoflagellates)
The metazoan lineage is _______
Remeber, phylogenies are ______ of related ness
Phylogenies are made using ____ or _____ data, with many different _____ combined
mophological or molecular datadifferent approaches combined
Monophyly of animals is supported by what type of factors?
Animals have sequence similarities in what?
5S and 18S ribosomal RNAs
Animals share similarities in what genes?
All animals share a similarity in _____ interactions
All animals have a common set of _____ (Example?)
extracellular matrix molecules(such as collagen)
Phylum Porifera contains the ______ and are referred to as ________ animals.
The spongesLoosely organized animals
What animals were separated early in the lineage?
Sponges are ____, which means they attach to the bottom substrate of the environment
Sponges are ____ which means they don't move.
What structure of sponges are its key feature?
Its cell types
Symmetry of phylum porifera organisms
The cellular organization of phylum porifera are ____ and lack ____ level organization
3 types of phylum porifera
Desmosponges (most common)Glass SpongesCalcareous sponges
Aprox. how many species in phylum porifera
T/F: Sponges are also found in fresh water
True, but only a few
T/F: Sponges not are found at all depths
FALSE, they are
The body of the sponge is mainly composed of a loose aggregation of cells surrounding a ____
water canal system
T/F: there is a certain opening in sponges that is the "mouth"
FALSE , no mouth
T/F: The feeding system of sponges is a multi- way movement of water
FALSE, one way
The specialized feeding cells of sponges are called what and what do they do?
Choanocytes-move water into the animal using a flagellum
Water in sponges exit via
The supporting structure that helps sponges stay rigid are called ____.
spicules (supporting spines)
T/F: Sponges have skeletons
FALSE, only structure support provided by spicules
Five cell types of sponges
What are the function of Sclerocytes?
to make the spicules
What is the function of archaeocytes?
digestion (contain enzymes)
What is the function of the Pinacocytes?
The "skin" of the sponge (tough and leathery)
What is the function of the Porocytes?
control water flow by contraction
The flagellum of the choanocytes are on the exterior and interior of the sponge?
In Choanocytes the central flagellum is surrounded by a collar of ______ which is the major site of ______
microvillimajor site of absorption
What processes ingests and deliver nutrients through out the sponge body? How do they deliver it?
Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis-deliver by food vacuoles
What 3 types of materials are spicules made out of?
Calcium carbonateSilicaSpongin (organic protein-like substance)
T/F: Sponges don't have the capacity to be ecologically dominant
FALSE they can conquer all
Body shape of sponges correlate to
Body shape of sponges correlate to
Name the classes in phylum Cnidaria and examples
Antho-zoans - coral/sea anemonesScypho-zoans - jellyfishHydro-zoanCuba-zoan
What is the next "split" in the monophylogenic tree for animals after porifera?
Changes in body plan from sponges
two embryonic cell layersdistinct organ systems
Cnidarians are mostly found in what type of environment
All cnidarians have basic ____ symmetry
Cnidarians have ___ cell layers of living tissue and what are they?
Two-epidermis and gastrodermis
Cnidarians have a middle ___ layer called the ___
What surrounds the mouth of Cnidarians?
T/F: Cnidarians have two openings to the digestive system
FALSE (no anus)
2 references to the digestive system of the Cnidarians are the _____ cavity and ______
Gastrovascular cavity"blind gut"
What structure do Cnidarians use for stinging?
Describe the mobility of Cnidarians
some swimsome are stationary
Cnidarians are _____ carnivores
Cnidarians have a ____ metabolic rate which allow them to live in poor nutrient and cold waters
low metabolic rate
How is the nervous system organized in Cnidarians
It is not (radiating non centralized net)
The tentacles on Cnidarians are for
Cnidarians can be referred to as a "____ with _____"
"gut with tentacles"
Name the 3 purposes of the gastrovascular cavity (Cnidarians)
Cnidarians lack a _____ system
Large Cnidarians can have a highly branched _____ due to lack of circulatory system
Cnidarians have ___ cells with ____ fibers that allow movement
epithelial cells with muscle fibers
How do Cnidarians "circulate" fluid/nutrients
What structure in the gastovascular cavity in Cnidarians contain digestive enxymes
Outside to inside of a Cndarian
epidermis - cnidocysts - mesoglea - gastrodermis - gastrovascular cavity
The stinging cells of Cnidarians are called
Cnidocytes eject a ____ that injects toxins
Unlike sponges cnidarians have nerves and ____
The first animal in the lineage to have muscles
T/F: Cndarians have a true nervous system
Describe the nerve organization of Cnidarians
mesh of decentralized nerves in a network
Cnidarians have a _____ skeletal system
Two life stages of cnidarians
polyp and medusa
4 main groups of Cnidarians
Scyphozoans are phlyum ____ and are the _____
Anthozoans are phylum ____ and are ____
cnidariacoral and sea anemone
Hydrozoans are phylum ___ and are ____
Cubazoans are phylum ___ and are ____
Another name for jellyfish are ____ animals
T/F: jellyfish are all marine
look at slide 11 lecture 2
jellyfish life cycle
Which class contain the only freshwater cndarians?
Hydras are ____ in motion and _____ swimmers
look at lecture 2 slide 13 for
Anthozoans are sometimes referred to as _____ animals
Anthozoans include what types of animals
corals and sea anemones
The reef building organisms
The spatially dominant animal in reefs
How do corals grow?
vegetative propagation of polyps
What gives coral their color? (casual and scientific name)
Endosymbiotic relationship with cnidarians (color)
Reef buidling/ calcium carbonate skeleton
Life cycle of corals (4 stages)
larvae (planula) -> coral spat -> juvenile corals --> adult coral
Cnidarians get ___ and ____ benefits while the dinoflagellates gain ____ and ____
trophic and nutritionalshelter and sunlight
Corals have a relatively small ____ in relationship to their _____ effect
The keystone species of reefs
What is coral bleaching?
when dinoflagellates leave or are reduced
What color are coral when they are bleached
2 reasons for coral bleaching
stress responseadaptive bleaching hypothesis (ABH)
What is adaptive bleaching hypothesis
switching out old symbionts for new, better ones "high risk"
Corals are referred to as ecosystem _____
Cubozoa include what type of animals
What are the differences between jellyfish and box jellies
box jellies have eyes and only 4 tentacles
The "sea wasps" of Australia are what class?
Cubozoa - box jellies
The one phylum separate from Cnidaria that are close to them
Another name for Ctenophores
What are the major differences between Ctenopores and Cnidarians
complete gut (2 openings)no nematocytesall marine
How do ctenophores feed?
sticky ctene (cilia) projections (8 rows)
Ctenes posses how many rows of ctenes?
What are ctenes?
What layer of tissue does muscle come in?
Two major animal lineages
Two lineages of protostomes
Flatworms are what group in lophotrochozoans?
Ribbon worms are what group in lophotrochozoans?
Segmented worms are what group in lophotrochozoans?
Roundworms are what group in Ecdysozoans?
What do Platyhelminthes, Nemerteans, Annelids, and Nematodes have in common?
They are all worms and all have members that are parasites
Distinguishing characteristic of platyhleminthes
The simplest animals with bilateral symmetry
How to flatworms move?
cilia on the ventral side
_____ is a key way for flatworms to perform bodily functions
T/F: flatworms have a blind gut
Simple classes of flatworms (4)
Turbellaria - planariansTrematoda - flukesMonogeneaCestoda
Which type of flatworms are specifically parasitic?
The attachment structure of cestoda
The segements/pieces of the cestodas are called
proglottids (contain eggs and such)
Nemerteas (ribbon worms) are ____ -bodied and un- _____
Ribbon worms, unlike flatworms have a _____ gut and anus
complete gut and anus
The simplest animal with a circulatory system
Ribbon worms (nemerteas)
The special feeding organ of ribbon worms (nemerteas; defining characteristic)
The proboscis (of ribbon worm/nemertea) is a ______ feeding organ which is _____ from the worm
hollow feeding organejected from the worm
The defining structures of ribbon worms (nemerteas)
What acts as the hydrostatic skeleton for nemerteas (ribbon worms)
body wall "muscles" and rhynochocoel
T/F: Nemerteans are not effective burrowers
Nemerteans are carnivores, herbivores, or both?
How do nemberteans feed?
Shoot the proboscies out of the body and use toxins/mucous to immobilize and wind in prey
Segmented worms are ____. Segmented means
Annelids-bodies are series of repeating segments
What controls each segment in annelids?
How doe annelids stay moist?
gas exchange across body wall
Annelids have little kidneys called
Defining characteristic of annelids=
1+ pair of chitinous setae per segment
The 4 classes of annelids
Poly-chaetes (marine)Oligo-chaetes (mostly freshwater, earthworm)Hiurdinea - leechesPogonophora - deep sea
Exclusively marine worms are called
A majority of annelids are what class?
Polychaetes use what for movement?
Parapodia (flat outgrowths, vascular)
T/F: polychaetes do not have the possibility to burrow
The class of annelids that are all hermaphroditic
Leeches belong under the what class of annelids?
The only Ecdysozoan worms we are studying are ___
nematodes (round worms)
The only worms/animals with cuticles are
nematodes (round worms)
4 major groups of mollsks are
Mollusks are in what lineage of animals?
Proteosomes -> lophotrochozoans
T/F: There is a body standard for being a mollusk?
FALSEthey got dissimilar body shapes (no "typical" mollusk)
Structure mollusks use for locomotion/clinging
the muscular foot
Mollusks have what structure that secretes a calcareous shell?
What is it called when the mollusks have all organs centralized in one body area?
Mollusks have ____ that are used for feeding but are missing in bivalves
Describe the mollusks body plan (4 things)
shellgreatly reduced coelomcomplete digestive systemopen circulatory system (except in cephalpods)
Another name for chitons?
Describe the distinctive shell of chitons (polyplacs)
8 overlapping articulated plates
The structure of that acts as a suction cup in chitons is called
How do chitons feed?
they are grazers
The thin material used to keep the snail from drying out is called the
Muscles have ___ instead of radula for feeding
The only cephalopod with a shell is the
What 2 things make cephalopods super unique to mollusks
close circulatory systemlarge differentiated brain
What do cephalopods use to change color?
Along with chromataphores, squids also have ___ that give them bioluminescence