EEMB 3: Plants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EEMB 3: Plants Deck (222):
2

Scientific name for land plants

Embryophytes

3

Common feature that ALL land plants share

protected embryos

4

Name the groups of vascular plants

LycophytesHorsetailsWhisk fernsLepto fernsGymnospermsFlowering plants

5

Name the groups of Euphyllophytes

LycohpytesHorsetailsWhisk fernsLepto fernsGymnospermsFlowering Plants

6

What does Euphyllophytes mean?

"true leaves"

7

Name the groups of Monilophytes

HorsetailsWhisk fernsLepto ferns (basic ferns)

8

Name the groups of Seed Plants

GymnospermsFlowering Plants (Angiosperms)

9

More in depth description of lycophytes

club mosses and relatives

10

What are the only phylum that have Microphylls

lycophytes (club mosses and relatives)

11

What is the one trait of plants that completely separates it from protists, bacteria, etc?

Embryos protected by tissues of the parent plant; do not need an external water source to growEmbryophytes

12

A plant is a _____ eukaryote that uses chlorophylls ____, stores ____, and develops from an ______ protected by tissues by the parent plant

photosythetica & bembryo

13

Plants are referred to as empbryophytes because

they develop from embryos

14

The kingom plantae is ____ which forms how many branches of the evolutionary tree?

monophyleticone branch only

15

List the groups of the kingdom Plantae

GlaucophytesRed AlgaeChlorophytes"other' green algaeColeochaetalesCharophytesLand Plants (embryophytes)

16

Green plants are also called

streptophytes

17

The most closely related group to land plants

charophytes

18

List the close slimilarities between land plants (embryophytes) and charophytes (algae)

chlorophyll a,bbeta-carotene as accessory pigmentthylakoid stacks (grana)store starchcellulose for cell wallsuse cell plate for divisiongenetic similarity (cpDNA and other genes)

19

Development of new physiology led to an ______ shift to land

ecological

20

The major plant cell composition needed for water retention

cuticle

21

Major plant part needed for gas exchange and retention of water

stomata

22

What physiological change came about to allow transportation between mediums

division into subterranean & aerial organs

23

What is composes the main support for the outside of plants ("woody portions")

Lignin

24

What is function is the protection of gametes from desiccation?

Gametengia

25

What is needed for protection from desiccation and damage?

sporopollenin/thick spore walls

26

One reason for the ecological shift to land

mutual association with a fungus

27

Embryos protect

young sporophytes

28

Non-tracheophyte groups

LiverwortsMossesHornworts

29

T/F: Knowing the dominant generation (in alternation of generations) helps classify plants

True!

30

In the generic alternation of generations cycle, what processes are at the transition between haplontic and diplontic

meiosis and fetilization

31

In the generic alternation of generations cycle what stages are in the haplonic cycle

Sporemulti-cellular gametophytegametes

32

In the generic alternation of generations cycle what stages are in the diplontic cycle

zygotemulti-cellualr sporophyte

33

Class of plants that has the most species

angiosperms

34

non-tracheophytes (non-vascular) plants are the decendents of the ____ lineages of plants

oldest

35

the sporophyte develops from the

embryo

36

the embryo is dependent on and protected by the

gametophyte

37

Non-tracheophytes are found usually in _____ climate

moist

38

What generation stage is most dominant in non-tracheophytes (non-vascular plants)

gametophyte / haplonitc

39

Describe the moss life cycle

Starting from haploid-ungerminated spore-germinating-protonema (rhizoid, bud, photo filament)-gametophytes-archegonium/antheridium-sperm/egg-eggDiploid stage-embryo-sporophyte/casule (spreads spores)(gametophyte still present)Cycle starts over

40

Specialized cells that transport water and nutrients

tracheids

41

Tracheids are what shape

spindle shaped

42

What connects tracheids

pits

43

Tracheids also provide what other function?

structural support

44

Tracheids are formed through what?

programmed cell death (for empty space to transport nutrients and water)

45

In non-tracheophytes the sporophyte (2n) is the ______ and gametophyte (n) is the ___

capsule"leaf"

46

In treacheophytes the sporophyte is the ___ and gametophyte is ____

leavessome of small underground thing

47

The first tracheophytes lacked

"true leaves"roots

48

Rhynia fossils are what?When were they found?

the first tracheophytes foundDevonion Period

49

Tracheophytes were a product of what reproductive cycle

meiosis

50

What era were the first ferns & fern allies found? (Monilophytes)

Devonian Period

51

Monilophytes showed first signs of what 3 things that showed evolution of plants?

true roots/leavesheterospory"overtopping" growth pattern

52

what might have allowed the evolution of specialized root and shoot axes?

dichotomous branching

53

T/F: Lycophyta have root/shoot systems that both branch dichotomously

True

54

What is dichotomous branching?

equal division of two branches at a terminal bud

55

Simple leaves are called (scientific)

microphylls

56

Scientifically define a leaf

a flattened photosynthetic structure emerging laterally from a main axis/stem and has "true" vascular tissue

57

Simple leaves are characteristic of which phylum

Lycophytes (club mosses)

58

Megaphylls are

complex leaves

59

Megaphylls are thought to have evolved from what growth process?

overtopping (branched vascular strands that flattened and developed tissue in-between)

60

Different between simple and complex leaves

multiple vascular strands

61

Describe the haploid portion of a homosporic cycle

meiosis -> spore -> gamtophyte ->-> achegonium ->eggsOR-> antheridium -> sperm

62

archegonium is what part of a plants reproductive haploid cycle

female part

63

atheridium is what part of a plants haploid reproductive cycle

male part

64

Describe the diploid portion of a homosporic cycle

zygote -> embryo -> sporophyte -> sporangium -> spore of a mother cell

65

In the heterospory cycle the prefix mega- refers to which gender

Female

66

In the heterospory cycle the prefix micro- refers to which gender

male

67

Describe the haploid part of heterosporic life cycle

meiosis ->spore -> gametophyte -> sperm/eggs

68

Describe the diploid part of heterosporic life cycle

same as homosporic cept micro/mega sporangiums

69

Heterospory promotes

outcrossing

70

Heterospory provides _____ flexibility

developmental flexibility

71

In heterospory the megagametophyte undergoes

endosporic development

72

What is endosporic development

when the megagametophyte does not leave the megaspore to grow

73

Sporangia are

containers in which asexual spores are formed

74

Two dispersal mechanisms

spore and seed

75

T/F: the gametophyte is reduced less in seed plants than non-seed tracheophytes

FALSE

76

T/F: Water is sometimes needed for sexual reproduction

FALSE. no need at all

77

How does the haploid megagametophyte develop in seed plants

Develops partially or entirely attached and is nutritionally dependent to the diploid sporophyte

78

In seed plants, the male gametophyte is a

gene dispersal stage (pollen)

79

Seeds contain what, what sort of stage is it, and are a means of what?

contain the new sporophyte generationa resting stagea means of dispersal

80

What are strobilus?

a cluster of modified leaves with sporangia

81

Microspores divide by mitois into what?

pollen grains (microgametophyte)

82

Two cell parts of the pollen grain

generative celltube cell

83

Pollen is what type of reproductive form

microgametophyte

84

Creating pollen is a method for what two things?

dispersalavoiding inbreeding

85

Ovule is the structure that contains the

female gametophyte

86

The ovule is surrounded by what?

nucellus (megasporangium)

87

In a seed the embryo is the ___-phyte

sporophyte

88

What type of plants are angiosperms?

Flowering plants

89

Angiosperms (flowering plants) undergo ______ fertilization

double

90

What kind of endosperm do angiosperms have

triploid endosperm

91

In angiosperms, the ovules are enclosed in the _____ and the seeds in ______

carpelthe fruit

92

What vascular parts do the angiosperm have?

xylem and phloem

93

The generative cell divides and produces what

2 haploid sperm cells

94

tracheids may have evolved into what two type of cells in angiosperms

vessel elementsfiber cells

95

Describe the evolution of the carpel

leaf like structure with sporangia on it folded on itself, with sporangia on the inside

96

Evolution of the flower stems from

fusion of carpels

97

Fusion of carpels make up what structure? (aka multiple carpels)

the pistil

98

Advantages of the pistil

efficient deposition of pollenefficient movement of pollen tubes

99

A closed carpel protects the

ovules and seeds

100

Properties of monocots

flower parts in 3'sparallel veinsnarrow leavessingle cotyledon in seedsscattered vascular bundles

101

Properties of Dicots (Eudicots)

two cotyledons in seedsbroad leavesbranched veinsflower parts in 4,5'svascular bundles in an organized ring in the stem

102

For fruits the carpel turns into the _____ the ovary into the ____ and ovule into the ____

fruit wallactual fruitseed

103

Dispersal methods

wind, fruit (simple and aggregate), animal/organism, nuts

104

Wind and water dispersal are what type of transport?scientific name for wind dispersal is____for water is _____

PassiveAnemophilyHydrophyil

105

Animals are what type of dispersal transport? the 3 scientific names?

activezoophily, ornithophily, enotmophily

106

The reward for pollination to animals (and 2 subcategories)

food-nectar-pollen

107

flower glands that create nectar are called

nectaries

108

pollen is high in what substance for animals?

protein

109

Two types of plants that do fly pollination

Arsitolochi-aceaeAr-aceae

110

Properties of fly pollinating flowers

dull colorstrong, bad odorsmall clusters

111

colors for bee & wasp pollination (what type of light in the spectrum?)

white, blue, yellow (not red generally)UV light

112

Moth pollination requires the moth to have what long organ?

toungue

113

Bird pollination follows flowers with what typical color and ordor?

Red flowers (tubular)Trick- no to weak odor

114

Bird pollination scientific name

ornithophilly

115

T/F: Flower pollinating birds are not separated geographically. There is no convergence

FALSEgeographically separated and yes convergence

116

Bat pollination flowers are usually ____ and a ____ color support the bats weight and lack of sight

robustwhite

117

Describe the fig wasp pollination method

-Females lay eggs in the fig ovaries while pollinating other ovaries at the same time-born male wasps mate with all the females and then burrow out the fig and then die. -females use the path created by the male to go out and pollinate more figs

118

fig and wasps show signs of co- _____ and co- ___

speciation and evolution

119

What exceptions to the co-evolution of fig and wasp relationship are there?

1 wasp to 2 fig species that are geographically separated2 wasps to 1 fig that covers a wide geographic area

120

The two flower parts that are thought to be modified leaves

carplestamen

121

What are whorls?

think of them as "layers" of flower parts (inside to outside)

122

To study how parts of plants work we compare them with ____ counterparts

mutant

123

Why do we use mutants to study plants?

-helps discern how a gene works by showing what happens to the plant when it doesn't work-cloned genes can give biochemical info

124

Researchers need both ___ and ____ info to understand a genes role

phenotypicbiochemical

125

The identification of a gene by mutant phenotype is called

forward genetics

126

Using a cloned/mutated gene to FIND a mutant phenotype is called

reverse genetics

127

What are homeotic genes/mutations?

genes/mutations that determine the developmental fate of ENTIRE portions of an organism

128

What is mutagenesis

The process of introducing a mutant to an organism to see what gene it affects to learn more info

129

Steps of Mutagenesis

-expose organism to mutagen-allow organism to reproduce and let mutagen affect whatever genes-observe the progeny of effects-ID the gene mutated

130

Stomata first appear in what plant?

Mosses

131

Overtopping growth is

one branch differentiating from another and grows above it

132

Triploidy is characteristic of what group of plants?

angiosperms

133

Megaphylls first appear in ____ and are found from then on

horsetails

134

The first land plants are seen during what period

Ordovician

135

First vascular plant fossils are found when

Silurian

136

Earliest gymnosperms are found in what period

Devonian

137

Earliest angiosperms found when

Jurassic period

138

Liverworts belong to the phylum

Hepatophyta

139

Hornworts belong to the phylum

Anthocerophyta

140

Mosses belong to the phylum

Bryophyta

141

Club Mosses belong to the phylum

Lycophyta

142

Ferns and related belong to the phylum

Pteridophyta

143

Do gametophytes or sporophytes produce more odor?

gametophytes

144

Water transport in non-tracheophytes?Sugar transport?

HydroidLeptoid

145

How do non-tracheophyte cells divide?

apical cell division

146

In the phylogenic tree, what other 2 traits come along with tracheids?

sporophyte dominancy and independencebranching

147

Rhizome(thick part) and Rhizoids (small parts) are what?

"roots" of non-tracheophytes(only anchors, that is the ONLY function)

148

The first tracheophytes had tracheids which also meant they had a ____

xylem

149

The only phylum with simple leaves are

lycophyta (club mosses)

150

Complex leaves (megaphylls) are first found in ____ and beyond

ferns (monilophytes/ Pteridophyta)

151

Heterospory is found in most or all of

gymno and angiosperms

152

Lycophyta are first found during what period

Devonian

153

Some heterospory is found in which two types of plants?

lycophyta and regular ferns

154

Whisk ferns were thought to be direct descendants of the _____ but actually is related to all the ferns

Rhyniophytes (first fossils of tracheophytes)

155

Horsetails (rush) are first seen in what period

Devonian

156

Describe the fern lifecycle

Starting from Meiosis-spore tetrad-germinating spore-mature gametophyte (with rhizoids)-antheridium/archegonium -sperm/eggFertilization-ebryo (unprotected)-sporophyte-mature sporophyte-sporangium

157

What is the male gametophyte dispersal product?

pollen

158

The "naked seed" term belongs to what group of plants?

gymnosperms

159

Name the phylums of the gymnosperms

Cycado-phytaginko-phytaGneto-phytaconifero-phyta

160

Non-motile sperm develops in which types of plants?

Gymnosperms (some) and angiosperms

161

Specifically which gymnosperms have developed non-motile sperm

Gnetophyta and coniferophyta

162

Rise of seed plants happen during which era?

Paleozoic

163

Gymnosperms are dominant during which era?

Mesozoic

164

Angiosperms are dominant during during which era?

Cenozoic

165

Describe the structure of a microsporangium (of gymnosperms)

Microsporophyll (the actual modified leaf)Microsporangium (outer covering)Microsporocytes (reproductive part)

166

Microsporangium undergo _____ to make microspores (1n)

meiosis

167

Microsporangium create what by going through meiosis?

spores (microspores)

168

What ploidy are microspores?

1n

169

Pollen grains are a product of what reproductive process?

Mitosis

170

Pollen grains are Micro-_____ and are they single or multiple-celled

microgametophytesmulticellular

171

What two type of cells are in pollen grains? What ploidy are they?

generative cells and tube cellall 1n

172

The pollen lands onto which part of the megassporangium to fertilize?

micropyle

173

Describe the structure of a megasporangium

megasporophyll (modified leaf)integument- outside coveringmegasporangium - inside spacemegasporocyte

174

The megasporangium undergoes ___ to from megaspores. How many megaspores are formed?

Meiosis4 megaspores

175

Describe in detail what the 4 megaspores from meiosis are composed of

1 functional spore and 3 degenerate spores

176

After the megasporangium forms the 4 megaspores it undergoes ____ to from the seed

mitosis

177

Name the parts of the gymnosperm seed from outside to in

integumentmegasporangiummegagametophytearchegoniumegg(pollen tube exists through all layers)

178

What structure digest the 3 degenerate megaspores?

the pollen tube

179

Name the parts of the ovule from outside to in

micropyle (opening)integument(pollen tubes through each layer)nucellusendosperm (megagametophyte)3 archegonia

180

In embryogenesis of gymnosperms the cotyledons are____, the hypocotyl is the ___, and the portion near where the micropyle/pollen tubes were is the developing ____ are

the forming leavesspace bettween the forming leaves/the entire bodyroots/radical

181

Seed plants are different in embryogenesis in the way that they do not require any ____

external water

182

look at

gymnosperm life cycle later

183

Dioecious means what?

having a female plant and a male plant (female plant smells)

184

Name the parts of the ovule/ovary of an angiosperm

integuments (2 layers)synergids (things touching the egg)3 anti-podal cells (function unknown)egg2 polar nuclei

185

Name the parts of the sperm of the angiosperm

tube cell (body)generative cell/nucleustube cell nucleus

186

Describe the process of sperm entering the overy in angiosperms

1)Generative cell creates 2 haploid sperm cells2)Sperm enter the synergid and degenerates it3) one sperm fuses with the egg and the other with the polar nuclei

187

Describe the evolution of the stamen

The modified leaf with sporangia gradually shrunk until it is sandwiched between the 2 sporangia pairs

188

The cross section of a carpel looks like what?The cross section of a stamen looks like what?

And awkward peace symbol with sporangia in the enclosed open spacesa 4 leaf clover

189

Difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms tracheids wise?

Angiosperms now have vessel elements instead of just tracheids

190

Pollen is characteristic of which types of plants?

gymnosperms and angiosperms only

191

List all of the parts of a flower from inside to outsdie

Carpel/pistil (stigma-style-ovule)Stamen (anther- filament)Receptacle (part connecting flower to stem)PetalSepal

192

In what order do we count whorls from outside to inside

1, 2, 3, 4

193

Name whorls 1-4

1-sepal2-petal3-stamen4-carpels

194

Aquilegia is the genus resulting from

rapid adaptive radiation

195

Asexual reproduction involves how many parents?

1

196

Two main types of asexual reproduction are

vegetativeagamospermy

197

T/F: In asexual reproduction, there no meiosis, no fertilization, but there is recombination?

FALSEnone of any of those

198

List the modes (5) of vegetative reprodcution

RhizomesTillersBulbletsBubilsCuttings

199

Agamospermy is what?

Production of seeds identical to parents created without sex

200

Advantages of asexual reproduction

competitive advantage in relation to arealess efforteasy colonization

201

Disadvantages of asexual reproduction

barely any genetic variabilityoccupy smaller arealimited dispersal

202

Sexual reproduction is production of offspring through ____ and _____

meiosis and fertilization

203

Flowering plants are generally ___

hermaphroditic

204

Inbreeding Depression is

the reduction in fitness due to inbreeding compared to ones with outcrossing

205

What causes inbreeding depresssion

Reductions in viability and fertility

206

Downside to inbreeding

Genotypes alteredAllelic frequencies DONT changelow heterozygosityHomozygosity of bad genes

207

Strategies to prevent self-fertilization

Mechanisms promoting outcrossingtimingcreating incompatibility

208

What is the most ancient surviving plant linage?

Liverworts

209

Bryophytes (mosses) are dependent on water for reproduction because

the motile sperm need water to swim to the eggs

210

All plants produce ____ by meiosis and ____ by mitosis

spores by MEIOSISgametes by MITOSIS

211

T/F: The sporophytes of all plants are independent

FALSEnon-tracheophyte sporophytes are dependent

212

Which phylum diverged first from the tracheophytes?

Lycophyta!(the only ones with sporophylls)

213

One importance of the development of the xylem was its ability to provide

structural support

214

What is one evolutionary trait that is not shared by all land plants?

The xylem

215

Evidence that heterospory leads to advantages is that it has _____ several times

evolved

216

Sporangia can be IDed as the fossil Rhynia because meiosis produces ____-

4 haploid cells

217

stomata first appear in

hornworts

218

Which phylum is the only one that has independent gametophytes?

Pteridophyta (ferns)

219

What group of plants have a mature gametophyte with 8 nuclei?

Angiosperms (monocots and dicots)

220

What replaces the atheridium in gymnosperms?

pollen!

221

T/F: Archegonia and antheridia are multicellular

True

222

Most species of this group of plants are monoecious

gymnosperms (confiers)

223

Which phylum outside of angiosperms have vessel elements

Gnetophyta