Scientific name for land plants
Common feature that ALL land plants share
Name the groups of vascular plants
LycophytesHorsetailsWhisk fernsLepto fernsGymnospermsFlowering plants
Name the groups of Euphyllophytes
LycohpytesHorsetailsWhisk fernsLepto fernsGymnospermsFlowering Plants
What does Euphyllophytes mean?
Name the groups of Monilophytes
HorsetailsWhisk fernsLepto ferns (basic ferns)
Name the groups of Seed Plants
GymnospermsFlowering Plants (Angiosperms)
More in depth description of lycophytes
club mosses and relatives
What are the only phylum that have Microphylls
lycophytes (club mosses and relatives)
What is the one trait of plants that completely separates it from protists, bacteria, etc?
Embryos protected by tissues of the parent plant; do not need an external water source to growEmbryophytes
A plant is a _____ eukaryote that uses chlorophylls ____, stores ____, and develops from an ______ protected by tissues by the parent plant
photosythetica & bembryo
Plants are referred to as empbryophytes because
they develop from embryos
The kingom plantae is ____ which forms how many branches of the evolutionary tree?
monophyleticone branch only
List the groups of the kingdom Plantae
GlaucophytesRed AlgaeChlorophytes"other' green algaeColeochaetalesCharophytesLand Plants (embryophytes)
Green plants are also called
The most closely related group to land plants
List the close slimilarities between land plants (embryophytes) and charophytes (algae)
chlorophyll a,bbeta-carotene as accessory pigmentthylakoid stacks (grana)store starchcellulose for cell wallsuse cell plate for divisiongenetic similarity (cpDNA and other genes)
Development of new physiology led to an ______ shift to land
The major plant cell composition needed for water retention
Major plant part needed for gas exchange and retention of water
What physiological change came about to allow transportation between mediums
division into subterranean & aerial organs
What is composes the main support for the outside of plants ("woody portions")
What is function is the protection of gametes from desiccation?
What is needed for protection from desiccation and damage?
sporopollenin/thick spore walls
One reason for the ecological shift to land
mutual association with a fungus
T/F: Knowing the dominant generation (in alternation of generations) helps classify plants
In the generic alternation of generations cycle, what processes are at the transition between haplontic and diplontic
meiosis and fetilization
In the generic alternation of generations cycle what stages are in the haplonic cycle
In the generic alternation of generations cycle what stages are in the diplontic cycle
Class of plants that has the most species
non-tracheophytes (non-vascular) plants are the decendents of the ____ lineages of plants
the sporophyte develops from the
the embryo is dependent on and protected by the
Non-tracheophytes are found usually in _____ climate
What generation stage is most dominant in non-tracheophytes (non-vascular plants)
gametophyte / haplonitc
Describe the moss life cycle
Starting from haploid-ungerminated spore-germinating-protonema (rhizoid, bud, photo filament)-gametophytes-archegonium/antheridium-sperm/egg-eggDiploid stage-embryo-sporophyte/casule (spreads spores)(gametophyte still present)Cycle starts over
Specialized cells that transport water and nutrients
Tracheids are what shape
What connects tracheids
Tracheids also provide what other function?
Tracheids are formed through what?
programmed cell death (for empty space to transport nutrients and water)
In non-tracheophytes the sporophyte (2n) is the ______ and gametophyte (n) is the ___
In treacheophytes the sporophyte is the ___ and gametophyte is ____
leavessome of small underground thing
The first tracheophytes lacked
Rhynia fossils are what?When were they found?
the first tracheophytes foundDevonion Period
Tracheophytes were a product of what reproductive cycle
What era were the first ferns & fern allies found? (Monilophytes)
Monilophytes showed first signs of what 3 things that showed evolution of plants?
true roots/leavesheterospory"overtopping" growth pattern
what might have allowed the evolution of specialized root and shoot axes?
T/F: Lycophyta have root/shoot systems that both branch dichotomously
What is dichotomous branching?
equal division of two branches at a terminal bud
Simple leaves are called (scientific)
Scientifically define a leaf
a flattened photosynthetic structure emerging laterally from a main axis/stem and has "true" vascular tissue
Simple leaves are characteristic of which phylum
Lycophytes (club mosses)
Megaphylls are thought to have evolved from what growth process?
overtopping (branched vascular strands that flattened and developed tissue in-between)
Different between simple and complex leaves
multiple vascular strands
Describe the haploid portion of a homosporic cycle
meiosis -> spore -> gamtophyte ->-> achegonium ->eggsOR-> antheridium -> sperm
archegonium is what part of a plants reproductive haploid cycle
atheridium is what part of a plants haploid reproductive cycle
Describe the diploid portion of a homosporic cycle
zygote -> embryo -> sporophyte -> sporangium -> spore of a mother cell
In the heterospory cycle the prefix mega- refers to which gender
In the heterospory cycle the prefix micro- refers to which gender
Describe the haploid part of heterosporic life cycle
meiosis ->spore -> gametophyte -> sperm/eggs
Describe the diploid part of heterosporic life cycle
same as homosporic cept micro/mega sporangiums
Heterospory provides _____ flexibility
In heterospory the megagametophyte undergoes
What is endosporic development
when the megagametophyte does not leave the megaspore to grow
containers in which asexual spores are formed
Two dispersal mechanisms
spore and seed
T/F: the gametophyte is reduced less in seed plants than non-seed tracheophytes
T/F: Water is sometimes needed for sexual reproduction
FALSE. no need at all
How does the haploid megagametophyte develop in seed plants
Develops partially or entirely attached and is nutritionally dependent to the diploid sporophyte
In seed plants, the male gametophyte is a
gene dispersal stage (pollen)
Seeds contain what, what sort of stage is it, and are a means of what?
contain the new sporophyte generationa resting stagea means of dispersal
What are strobilus?
a cluster of modified leaves with sporangia
Microspores divide by mitois into what?
pollen grains (microgametophyte)
Two cell parts of the pollen grain
generative celltube cell
Pollen is what type of reproductive form
Creating pollen is a method for what two things?
Ovule is the structure that contains the
The ovule is surrounded by what?
In a seed the embryo is the ___-phyte
What type of plants are angiosperms?
Angiosperms (flowering plants) undergo ______ fertilization
What kind of endosperm do angiosperms have
In angiosperms, the ovules are enclosed in the _____ and the seeds in ______
What vascular parts do the angiosperm have?
xylem and phloem
The generative cell divides and produces what
2 haploid sperm cells
tracheids may have evolved into what two type of cells in angiosperms
vessel elementsfiber cells
Describe the evolution of the carpel
leaf like structure with sporangia on it folded on itself, with sporangia on the inside
Evolution of the flower stems from
fusion of carpels
Fusion of carpels make up what structure? (aka multiple carpels)
Advantages of the pistil
efficient deposition of pollenefficient movement of pollen tubes
A closed carpel protects the
ovules and seeds
Properties of monocots
flower parts in 3'sparallel veinsnarrow leavessingle cotyledon in seedsscattered vascular bundles
Properties of Dicots (Eudicots)
two cotyledons in seedsbroad leavesbranched veinsflower parts in 4,5'svascular bundles in an organized ring in the stem
For fruits the carpel turns into the _____ the ovary into the ____ and ovule into the ____
fruit wallactual fruitseed
wind, fruit (simple and aggregate), animal/organism, nuts
Wind and water dispersal are what type of transport?scientific name for wind dispersal is____for water is _____
Animals are what type of dispersal transport? the 3 scientific names?
activezoophily, ornithophily, enotmophily
The reward for pollination to animals (and 2 subcategories)
flower glands that create nectar are called
pollen is high in what substance for animals?
Two types of plants that do fly pollination
Properties of fly pollinating flowers
dull colorstrong, bad odorsmall clusters
colors for bee & wasp pollination (what type of light in the spectrum?)
white, blue, yellow (not red generally)UV light
Moth pollination requires the moth to have what long organ?
Bird pollination follows flowers with what typical color and ordor?
Red flowers (tubular)Trick- no to weak odor
Bird pollination scientific name
T/F: Flower pollinating birds are not separated geographically. There is no convergence
FALSEgeographically separated and yes convergence
Bat pollination flowers are usually ____ and a ____ color support the bats weight and lack of sight
Describe the fig wasp pollination method
-Females lay eggs in the fig ovaries while pollinating other ovaries at the same time-born male wasps mate with all the females and then burrow out the fig and then die. -females use the path created by the male to go out and pollinate more figs
fig and wasps show signs of co- _____ and co- ___
speciation and evolution
What exceptions to the co-evolution of fig and wasp relationship are there?
1 wasp to 2 fig species that are geographically separated2 wasps to 1 fig that covers a wide geographic area
The two flower parts that are thought to be modified leaves
What are whorls?
think of them as "layers" of flower parts (inside to outside)
To study how parts of plants work we compare them with ____ counterparts
Why do we use mutants to study plants?
-helps discern how a gene works by showing what happens to the plant when it doesn't work-cloned genes can give biochemical info
Researchers need both ___ and ____ info to understand a genes role
The identification of a gene by mutant phenotype is called
Using a cloned/mutated gene to FIND a mutant phenotype is called
What are homeotic genes/mutations?
genes/mutations that determine the developmental fate of ENTIRE portions of an organism
What is mutagenesis
The process of introducing a mutant to an organism to see what gene it affects to learn more info
Steps of Mutagenesis
-expose organism to mutagen-allow organism to reproduce and let mutagen affect whatever genes-observe the progeny of effects-ID the gene mutated
Stomata first appear in what plant?
Overtopping growth is
one branch differentiating from another and grows above it
Triploidy is characteristic of what group of plants?
Megaphylls first appear in ____ and are found from then on
The first land plants are seen during what period
First vascular plant fossils are found when
Earliest gymnosperms are found in what period
Earliest angiosperms found when
Liverworts belong to the phylum
Hornworts belong to the phylum
Mosses belong to the phylum
Club Mosses belong to the phylum
Ferns and related belong to the phylum
Do gametophytes or sporophytes produce more odor?
Water transport in non-tracheophytes?Sugar transport?
How do non-tracheophyte cells divide?
apical cell division
In the phylogenic tree, what other 2 traits come along with tracheids?
sporophyte dominancy and independencebranching
Rhizome(thick part) and Rhizoids (small parts) are what?
"roots" of non-tracheophytes(only anchors, that is the ONLY function)
The first tracheophytes had tracheids which also meant they had a ____
The only phylum with simple leaves are
lycophyta (club mosses)
Complex leaves (megaphylls) are first found in ____ and beyond
ferns (monilophytes/ Pteridophyta)
Heterospory is found in most or all of
gymno and angiosperms
Lycophyta are first found during what period
Some heterospory is found in which two types of plants?
lycophyta and regular ferns
Whisk ferns were thought to be direct descendants of the _____ but actually is related to all the ferns
Rhyniophytes (first fossils of tracheophytes)
Horsetails (rush) are first seen in what period
Describe the fern lifecycle
Starting from Meiosis-spore tetrad-germinating spore-mature gametophyte (with rhizoids)-antheridium/archegonium -sperm/eggFertilization-ebryo (unprotected)-sporophyte-mature sporophyte-sporangium
What is the male gametophyte dispersal product?
The "naked seed" term belongs to what group of plants?
Name the phylums of the gymnosperms
Non-motile sperm develops in which types of plants?
Gymnosperms (some) and angiosperms
Specifically which gymnosperms have developed non-motile sperm
Gnetophyta and coniferophyta
Rise of seed plants happen during which era?
Gymnosperms are dominant during which era?
Angiosperms are dominant during during which era?
Describe the structure of a microsporangium (of gymnosperms)
Microsporophyll (the actual modified leaf)Microsporangium (outer covering)Microsporocytes (reproductive part)
Microsporangium undergo _____ to make microspores (1n)
Microsporangium create what by going through meiosis?
What ploidy are microspores?
Pollen grains are a product of what reproductive process?
Pollen grains are Micro-_____ and are they single or multiple-celled
What two type of cells are in pollen grains? What ploidy are they?
generative cells and tube cellall 1n
The pollen lands onto which part of the megassporangium to fertilize?
Describe the structure of a megasporangium
megasporophyll (modified leaf)integument- outside coveringmegasporangium - inside spacemegasporocyte
The megasporangium undergoes ___ to from megaspores. How many megaspores are formed?
Describe in detail what the 4 megaspores from meiosis are composed of
1 functional spore and 3 degenerate spores
After the megasporangium forms the 4 megaspores it undergoes ____ to from the seed
Name the parts of the gymnosperm seed from outside to in
integumentmegasporangiummegagametophytearchegoniumegg(pollen tube exists through all layers)
What structure digest the 3 degenerate megaspores?
the pollen tube
Name the parts of the ovule from outside to in
micropyle (opening)integument(pollen tubes through each layer)nucellusendosperm (megagametophyte)3 archegonia
In embryogenesis of gymnosperms the cotyledons are____, the hypocotyl is the ___, and the portion near where the micropyle/pollen tubes were is the developing ____ are
the forming leavesspace bettween the forming leaves/the entire bodyroots/radical
Seed plants are different in embryogenesis in the way that they do not require any ____
gymnosperm life cycle later
Dioecious means what?
having a female plant and a male plant (female plant smells)
Name the parts of the ovule/ovary of an angiosperm
integuments (2 layers)synergids (things touching the egg)3 anti-podal cells (function unknown)egg2 polar nuclei
Name the parts of the sperm of the angiosperm
tube cell (body)generative cell/nucleustube cell nucleus
Describe the process of sperm entering the overy in angiosperms
1)Generative cell creates 2 haploid sperm cells2)Sperm enter the synergid and degenerates it3) one sperm fuses with the egg and the other with the polar nuclei
Describe the evolution of the stamen
The modified leaf with sporangia gradually shrunk until it is sandwiched between the 2 sporangia pairs
The cross section of a carpel looks like what?The cross section of a stamen looks like what?
And awkward peace symbol with sporangia in the enclosed open spacesa 4 leaf clover
Difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms tracheids wise?
Angiosperms now have vessel elements instead of just tracheids
Pollen is characteristic of which types of plants?
gymnosperms and angiosperms only
List all of the parts of a flower from inside to outsdie
Carpel/pistil (stigma-style-ovule)Stamen (anther- filament)Receptacle (part connecting flower to stem)PetalSepal
In what order do we count whorls from outside to inside
1, 2, 3, 4
Name whorls 1-4
Aquilegia is the genus resulting from
rapid adaptive radiation
Asexual reproduction involves how many parents?
Two main types of asexual reproduction are
T/F: In asexual reproduction, there no meiosis, no fertilization, but there is recombination?
FALSEnone of any of those
List the modes (5) of vegetative reprodcution
Agamospermy is what?
Production of seeds identical to parents created without sex
Advantages of asexual reproduction
competitive advantage in relation to arealess efforteasy colonization
Disadvantages of asexual reproduction
barely any genetic variabilityoccupy smaller arealimited dispersal
Sexual reproduction is production of offspring through ____ and _____
meiosis and fertilization
Flowering plants are generally ___
Inbreeding Depression is
the reduction in fitness due to inbreeding compared to ones with outcrossing
What causes inbreeding depresssion
Reductions in viability and fertility
Downside to inbreeding
Genotypes alteredAllelic frequencies DONT changelow heterozygosityHomozygosity of bad genes
Strategies to prevent self-fertilization
Mechanisms promoting outcrossingtimingcreating incompatibility
What is the most ancient surviving plant linage?
Bryophytes (mosses) are dependent on water for reproduction because
the motile sperm need water to swim to the eggs
All plants produce ____ by meiosis and ____ by mitosis
spores by MEIOSISgametes by MITOSIS
T/F: The sporophytes of all plants are independent
FALSEnon-tracheophyte sporophytes are dependent
Which phylum diverged first from the tracheophytes?
Lycophyta!(the only ones with sporophylls)
One importance of the development of the xylem was its ability to provide
What is one evolutionary trait that is not shared by all land plants?
Evidence that heterospory leads to advantages is that it has _____ several times
Sporangia can be IDed as the fossil Rhynia because meiosis produces ____-
4 haploid cells
stomata first appear in
Which phylum is the only one that has independent gametophytes?
What group of plants have a mature gametophyte with 8 nuclei?
Angiosperms (monocots and dicots)
What replaces the atheridium in gymnosperms?
T/F: Archegonia and antheridia are multicellular
Most species of this group of plants are monoecious
Which phylum outside of angiosperms have vessel elements