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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (135):
2

The immune system must be absolutely _____ to not attack normal cells

specific

3

The immune system must be ____ to fight off evolving pathogens

adaptive

4

Two general types of defense

Non-specific, and specific

5

Describe non-specific

innate, inherited mechanisms that protect the body from many pathogens

6

Describe specific defenses

adaptive mechs that protect against specific targets

7

______ tissues are essential parts of the defense system

Lymphoid tissues

8

Blood is in a _____ circulatory system

Close circulatory system (CCS)

9

What three components are suspended in blood?

Red, white blood cells and platelets

10

What blood cells are in the closed circulatory system?

Red, white, platelets

11

What blood cells are found in the lymphatic system

White blood cells and platelets

12

What is lymph?

fluids that accumulate outside the CCS in the lymphatic system

13

The lymphatic system is a _____ system of _____ connecting ______

branching, tiny capillaries, larger vessels

14

Small capillary lymph ducts eventually lead to larger ducts that connects to

a major vein near the heart

15

Lymph nodes and what they contain

small round lymph vessels, contain white blood cells

16

The lymphatic system can be related to a drainage system

True

17

White blood cells are also called ___ and are important in ____

leukocytes defense

18

All blood cells originate from

stem cells

19

Stem cells are located in the

bone marrow

20

What doe white blood cells look like?

Clear, and have a nucleus and organelles

21

Which are bigger white or red blood cells?

White

22

Red blood cells lose their ____ before becoming functional

nuclei

23

Why do red blood cells lose their nuclei before functioning?

nuclei = dead weight, room to carry oxygen

24

Which blood cells can leave the CCS?

white blood cells

25

In response to invading pathogens, white blood cells can ______ to increase the attack with numbers

poliferate

26

Two groups of white blood cells

phagocytes and lymphocytes

27

Phagocytes do what to pathogens?

engulf and digest them

28

Lymphocytes are involved in _____ immunity

Specific

29

Two types of lymphocyte cells

B and T cells

30

B-cells do what?

circulate and collect in lymph nodes, make antibodies

31

T-cells do what?

migrate to the thymus, destroy infected cells

32

Non-specific system works against what type of pathogens

ALL

33

The innate immune system is the _____ protection mechanism to stop pathogens

general/basic

34

List innate defenses

skin, bacteria/fungi on the surface of skin (aka normal flora), fluids with lysozyme, mucus/cilia, hydrochloric acid/proteases in the stomach, bile salts

35

Types of phagocytes

neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic

36

Phagocytes engulf pathogens, that is called

phagocytosis

37

Describe neutrophils

most abundant type of white blood cells, attack pathogens and react fast

38

Describe monocytes

phagocytes that mature into macrophages. Live longer and consume more pathogens. Can be mobile in lymphatic system

39

Describe dendritic cells

highly folded plasma membranes to capture pathogens

40

Neutrophils can only execute a phagocytic event ____ times(s).

ONCE

41

When a neutrophil attacks a pathogen it goes all out in one vigorous _____

respiratory burst (aka oxidative burst)

42

In a respiratory burst, _____ is activated and produces 3 products that kills pathogens

NADPH oxidasesuperoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid (chlorine bleach)

43

What is used to deal with infection of tissue damage?

Inflammation response

44

What happens in an inflammation response?

Mast cells and basophils (white blood cells) release histamine, which triggers inflammation

45

What does histamine do?

It triggers inflammation, makes capillaries leaky so plasma and phagocytes can come out

46

What in the wound attracts phagocytes

complement proteins and other chemical signals

47

Which phagocytes arrive at the tissue damage first?

Neutrophils then monocytes

48

Macrophages are responsible for what in tissue damage

cleaning and healing

49

Macrophages produce what to call immune cells and signal fevers

cytokines

50

What is pus?

dead cells and leaked fluid

51

What alters the immune system of invasion?

Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

52

TLRs recognize pathogens by their what?

pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)

53

Interferons are

a warning signal glycoprotein secretion by infected cells

54

Interfereons increase ______ of neighboring cells to infections by increasing the express of _______

resistance; protein kinase R (PKR)

55

PKR is activated by

viral RNA

56

PKR activation leads to ihibition of all _______

protein synthesis

57

Four characteristics of the adaptive immune system

specificity, diversity, distinguish, memory

58

Peptides/molecules recognized by T-cell receptors and antibodies

antigens

59

Antigenic determinants/epitopes are

sites on antigens that the immune system recognizes

60

The host creats _____ that are specific to the antigenic determinants

T cells/antibodies

61

Describe diversity

the immune system can distinguish and respond to a crap load of antigenic determinants

62

Describe distinguishment

the ability to tell normal cells from pathogens

63

Describe immunological memory

The immune system remembers the pathogen it was once exposed to to respond more rapidly

64

2 responses of the adaptive immune system

humoral and cellualr

65

the humoral and cellular responses have what in common?

They share mechanisms

66

Humoral immune response is based on

B-cells

67

B-cells produce specific ____ that recognize antigenic determinants by ____

antibodies; 3D conformation

68

Antibodies recognize pathogens in

extracellular spaces (fluids-"humor")

69

Cellular response detects antigens where?

Inside body cells

70

Cellular response destroys what cells

virus-infected/mutated cells

71

Cellular response is mainly made of

T-cells

72

T-cells have _____ receptors that recognize and bind specific antigenic determinants

T-cell receptors

73

Clonal selection

How the body chooses whether to use B or T cells

74

An activated lymphocyte (B/T cell) produces what 2 type of daughter cells?

Effector and memory cells

75

Effector B cells are also called ___ and produce ____

plasma cells, produce anitbodies

76

Effector of T cells release ____

cytokines

77

Describe memory cells

live longer and retain the ability to divide quickly to produce more effector and more memory cells

78

When the body encounters an antigen for the first time it tirggers

A primary immune response

79

When the body runs into an antigen again

a secondary immune response occurs

80

Which is faster, primary or secondary immune response?

Secondary

81

Vaccination and immunization shots do what?

create artificial immunity - injects the pathogen or just antigenic protein to tigger primary response without making the person sick

82

3 ways to vaccinate without actually making us sick

Attenuation, biotechnology, DNA vaccines

83

Ateentuation

reducing the toxicity of antigenic molecule

84

Biotechnology

makes recombinant antigenic fragments

85

DNA Vaccines

Introduce a gene encoding an antigen into the body

86

Poliomyelitis

spreads via fecal-oral route, primarily affects children, infections are asymptomatic

87

Salk vaccine

the first polio vaccine, injected in the skin

88

Oral Poli vaccine (OPV)

a live-attenuated vaccine, longer immunity, and singles out a mutation of virus' ribosome

89

Failure for the body to tolerate it's own molecules leads to

autoimmune disease

90

Self-tolerance of the body is based on

clonal deletion

91

If clonal deletion fails ______ B and T cells that attack the body's own cells are made

bad B T cells

92

examples of autoimmune disease

Type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, MS

93

Deletion of B cells happen in the

bone marrow

94

Deletion of T cells happen in the

Thymus

95

Elimination of B and T cells is by means of ___

apoptosis

96

____ cells are the basic component of the humoral immune system

B cells

97

For a B cell to differentiate into a plasma cell it must bind an _____

antigenic determinant

98

Cellular division and differentiation of the B cell is stimulated by a signal from a _____

helper T cell (Th Cell)

99

Activated B cells become

plasma cells and memory cells

100

Antibody molecules are proteins call

immunoglobulins

101

2 identical ____ chains and two _____ chains make up the tetrameric units

light- heavy chains

102

_____ hold the chains together

disulfide bonds

103

Both light and heavy chains have ______ and ____ regions

variable and constant

104

Constant regions are similar among the ____ and determine the ___

immunoglobulins and determine the class of the anibody

105

Variable regions differ in _____ sequences and are responsible for the ____ of antibody specificity

amino acid; diversity

106

light/heavy chains in variable regions align to form the

binding sites

107

Each tetramer has ___ identical antigen-binding sites making the antibody ____

2 ; bivalent

108

Antibody classes

IgG MonomerIgM PentamerIgD MonomerIgA DimerIgE MonomerIg - GAMED

109

Genes that code for T-cell receptors are similar to those for ___

immunoglobulins

110

T-cell receptors also have both ____ and ___ regions

constant and variable regions

111

The major difference between antibodies and T cell receptors

T-cell receptors bind ONLY to an antigenic determinant that is displayed on the surface

112

Activated T cells create what 2 types of effector cells?

Cytotoxic cells and Helper T cells

113

Cytotoxic cells kill virus cells by

causing them to lyse

114

Helper T cells do what?

assis in both cellular and humoral immune systems

115

Activated helper T cells do what for B cells and cytotoxic cells?

Proliferate and stimulate them to divide

116

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is what?

A gene that makes plasma membrane glycoprotiens

117

MHC proteins display what?

Antigens

118

3 classes of MHC proteins but we only talk about which two?

MHC I and II

119

MHC I proteins are present where?

on the surface of every nucleated cell

120

When cellular proteins are degraded in the _____ , what does the MHC I do?

proteasome; MHC I brings it out to the plasma membrane to dispose of it

121

How do Cytotoxic T cells and MHC I work together?

Degraded protein fragments from the proteosome are brought out to the plasma membrane surface by MHC I where T(c) cells check them, If the T(c) cell binds to the MHC I, it is activated to remove the fragment

122

If its in the EFFECTOR phase, the T(c) cell secretes molecules that ___

kill the cell

123

Fas

When T(c) cells bind to a specific target cell receptor

124

The binding of Fas inititates

apoptosis

125

The T(c) cells help rid the body of _____ and ____

virus infected cells and tumors

126

Describe MHC II proteins

found mostly on surface of B cells, macrophages and other "pro" antigen-presenting cells

127

MHC II fishes out bad fragments when the aintgen is _____ by B cells

Phagocytosed

128

Antibody production (humoral response) needs what components

T(H) cells B cell

129

What goes first activation phase of effector phase?

Activaton

130

T(h) cell with a specific ____ receptor can bind to an antigen from an antigen presenting ___

T-cell; macrophage

131

T-helper cells activate when it binds to and ____ from a macrophage and then produce a _____ population of identical T-helper cells

Antigen, clonal

132

In the effector stage, an antigen of the same sort must also be recognized by a specific ____ receptor on the surface of a ____ cell

IgM ; B cell

133

B cell ingests and degrades the antigen and passes it to a _____ protein on its cell surface

MHC II

134

In the effector stage one of the ___ cells created int he activation stage recognizes the antigen on the surface of the B cell

T-helper

135

The t-helper cell then release _____ which activate B cell replication and differentiation into plasma cells and memory cells

Cytokines

136

What secretes antibodies?

Plasma Cells