The immune system must be absolutely _____ to not attack normal cells
The immune system must be ____ to fight off evolving pathogens
Two general types of defense
Non-specific, and specific
innate, inherited mechanisms that protect the body from many pathogens
Describe specific defenses
adaptive mechs that protect against specific targets
______ tissues are essential parts of the defense system
Blood is in a _____ circulatory system
Close circulatory system (CCS)
What three components are suspended in blood?
Red, white blood cells and platelets
What blood cells are in the closed circulatory system?
Red, white, platelets
What blood cells are found in the lymphatic system
White blood cells and platelets
What is lymph?
fluids that accumulate outside the CCS in the lymphatic system
The lymphatic system is a _____ system of _____ connecting ______
branching, tiny capillaries, larger vessels
Small capillary lymph ducts eventually lead to larger ducts that connects to
a major vein near the heart
Lymph nodes and what they contain
small round lymph vessels, contain white blood cells
The lymphatic system can be related to a drainage system
White blood cells are also called ___ and are important in ____
All blood cells originate from
Stem cells are located in the
What doe white blood cells look like?
Clear, and have a nucleus and organelles
Which are bigger white or red blood cells?
Red blood cells lose their ____ before becoming functional
Why do red blood cells lose their nuclei before functioning?
nuclei = dead weight, room to carry oxygen
Which blood cells can leave the CCS?
white blood cells
In response to invading pathogens, white blood cells can ______ to increase the attack with numbers
Two groups of white blood cells
phagocytes and lymphocytes
Phagocytes do what to pathogens?
engulf and digest them
Lymphocytes are involved in _____ immunity
Two types of lymphocyte cells
B and T cells
B-cells do what?
circulate and collect in lymph nodes, make antibodies
T-cells do what?
migrate to the thymus, destroy infected cells
Non-specific system works against what type of pathogens
The innate immune system is the _____ protection mechanism to stop pathogens
List innate defenses
skin, bacteria/fungi on the surface of skin (aka normal flora), fluids with lysozyme, mucus/cilia, hydrochloric acid/proteases in the stomach, bile salts
Types of phagocytes
neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic
Phagocytes engulf pathogens, that is called
most abundant type of white blood cells, attack pathogens and react fast
phagocytes that mature into macrophages. Live longer and consume more pathogens. Can be mobile in lymphatic system
Describe dendritic cells
highly folded plasma membranes to capture pathogens
Neutrophils can only execute a phagocytic event ____ times(s).
When a neutrophil attacks a pathogen it goes all out in one vigorous _____
respiratory burst (aka oxidative burst)
In a respiratory burst, _____ is activated and produces 3 products that kills pathogens
NADPH oxidasesuperoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid (chlorine bleach)
What is used to deal with infection of tissue damage?
What happens in an inflammation response?
Mast cells and basophils (white blood cells) release histamine, which triggers inflammation
What does histamine do?
It triggers inflammation, makes capillaries leaky so plasma and phagocytes can come out
What in the wound attracts phagocytes
complement proteins and other chemical signals
Which phagocytes arrive at the tissue damage first?
Neutrophils then monocytes
Macrophages are responsible for what in tissue damage
cleaning and healing
Macrophages produce what to call immune cells and signal fevers
What is pus?
dead cells and leaked fluid
What alters the immune system of invasion?
Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
TLRs recognize pathogens by their what?
pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
a warning signal glycoprotein secretion by infected cells
Interfereons increase ______ of neighboring cells to infections by increasing the express of _______
resistance; protein kinase R (PKR)
PKR is activated by
PKR activation leads to ihibition of all _______
Four characteristics of the adaptive immune system
specificity, diversity, distinguish, memory
Peptides/molecules recognized by T-cell receptors and antibodies
Antigenic determinants/epitopes are
sites on antigens that the immune system recognizes
The host creats _____ that are specific to the antigenic determinants
the immune system can distinguish and respond to a crap load of antigenic determinants
the ability to tell normal cells from pathogens
Describe immunological memory
The immune system remembers the pathogen it was once exposed to to respond more rapidly
2 responses of the adaptive immune system
humoral and cellualr
the humoral and cellular responses have what in common?
They share mechanisms
Humoral immune response is based on
B-cells produce specific ____ that recognize antigenic determinants by ____
antibodies; 3D conformation
Antibodies recognize pathogens in
extracellular spaces (fluids-"humor")
Cellular response detects antigens where?
Inside body cells
Cellular response destroys what cells
Cellular response is mainly made of
T-cells have _____ receptors that recognize and bind specific antigenic determinants
How the body chooses whether to use B or T cells
An activated lymphocyte (B/T cell) produces what 2 type of daughter cells?
Effector and memory cells
Effector B cells are also called ___ and produce ____
plasma cells, produce anitbodies
Effector of T cells release ____
Describe memory cells
live longer and retain the ability to divide quickly to produce more effector and more memory cells
When the body encounters an antigen for the first time it tirggers
A primary immune response
When the body runs into an antigen again
a secondary immune response occurs
Which is faster, primary or secondary immune response?
Vaccination and immunization shots do what?
create artificial immunity - injects the pathogen or just antigenic protein to tigger primary response without making the person sick
3 ways to vaccinate without actually making us sick
Attenuation, biotechnology, DNA vaccines
reducing the toxicity of antigenic molecule
makes recombinant antigenic fragments
Introduce a gene encoding an antigen into the body
spreads via fecal-oral route, primarily affects children, infections are asymptomatic
the first polio vaccine, injected in the skin
Oral Poli vaccine (OPV)
a live-attenuated vaccine, longer immunity, and singles out a mutation of virus' ribosome
Failure for the body to tolerate it's own molecules leads to
Self-tolerance of the body is based on
If clonal deletion fails ______ B and T cells that attack the body's own cells are made
bad B T cells
examples of autoimmune disease
Type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, MS
Deletion of B cells happen in the
Deletion of T cells happen in the
Elimination of B and T cells is by means of ___
____ cells are the basic component of the humoral immune system
For a B cell to differentiate into a plasma cell it must bind an _____
Cellular division and differentiation of the B cell is stimulated by a signal from a _____
helper T cell (Th Cell)
Activated B cells become
plasma cells and memory cells
Antibody molecules are proteins call
2 identical ____ chains and two _____ chains make up the tetrameric units
light- heavy chains
_____ hold the chains together
Both light and heavy chains have ______ and ____ regions
variable and constant
Constant regions are similar among the ____ and determine the ___
immunoglobulins and determine the class of the anibody
Variable regions differ in _____ sequences and are responsible for the ____ of antibody specificity
amino acid; diversity
light/heavy chains in variable regions align to form the
Each tetramer has ___ identical antigen-binding sites making the antibody ____
2 ; bivalent
IgG MonomerIgM PentamerIgD MonomerIgA DimerIgE MonomerIg - GAMED
Genes that code for T-cell receptors are similar to those for ___
T-cell receptors also have both ____ and ___ regions
constant and variable regions
The major difference between antibodies and T cell receptors
T-cell receptors bind ONLY to an antigenic determinant that is displayed on the surface
Activated T cells create what 2 types of effector cells?
Cytotoxic cells and Helper T cells
Cytotoxic cells kill virus cells by
causing them to lyse
Helper T cells do what?
assis in both cellular and humoral immune systems
Activated helper T cells do what for B cells and cytotoxic cells?
Proliferate and stimulate them to divide
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is what?
A gene that makes plasma membrane glycoprotiens
MHC proteins display what?
3 classes of MHC proteins but we only talk about which two?
MHC I and II
MHC I proteins are present where?
on the surface of every nucleated cell
When cellular proteins are degraded in the _____ , what does the MHC I do?
proteasome; MHC I brings it out to the plasma membrane to dispose of it
How do Cytotoxic T cells and MHC I work together?
Degraded protein fragments from the proteosome are brought out to the plasma membrane surface by MHC I where T(c) cells check them, If the T(c) cell binds to the MHC I, it is activated to remove the fragment
If its in the EFFECTOR phase, the T(c) cell secretes molecules that ___
kill the cell
When T(c) cells bind to a specific target cell receptor
The binding of Fas inititates
The T(c) cells help rid the body of _____ and ____
virus infected cells and tumors
Describe MHC II proteins
found mostly on surface of B cells, macrophages and other "pro" antigen-presenting cells
MHC II fishes out bad fragments when the aintgen is _____ by B cells
Antibody production (humoral response) needs what components
T(H) cells B cell
What goes first activation phase of effector phase?
T(h) cell with a specific ____ receptor can bind to an antigen from an antigen presenting ___
T-helper cells activate when it binds to and ____ from a macrophage and then produce a _____ population of identical T-helper cells
In the effector stage, an antigen of the same sort must also be recognized by a specific ____ receptor on the surface of a ____ cell
IgM ; B cell
B cell ingests and degrades the antigen and passes it to a _____ protein on its cell surface
In the effector stage one of the ___ cells created int he activation stage recognizes the antigen on the surface of the B cell
The t-helper cell then release _____ which activate B cell replication and differentiation into plasma cells and memory cells
What secretes antibodies?