Elbow Flashcards Preview

Musculoskeletal Pathophysiology > Elbow > Flashcards

Flashcards in Elbow Deck (61):
1

When are the Radius and ulna farthest from each other?

During supination

2

Which bone of the forearm extends more distally?

The Radius. Creates ulnar variance or the tendency for the hand to deviate towards the ulnar side

3

RA causes a diffuse thickening of what structures?

Synovium

4

What two things can develop with RA?

Flexion contracture
Ligamentous laxity causing instability

5

When is a total elbow replacement most commonly performed?

For severe RA

6

How is OA usually treated?

Arthroscopically

7

Why are total elbow replacements not typically done?

Hard to mimic the multidirectional movement at the the elbow

8

What is OA seen with?

an end result of trauma, sports injuries or in heavy laborers

9

What are osteophytes?

Bone spurs/growths

10

What happens to the joint space with OA?

Narrows

11

What can happen to elbow extension with OA and why?

You will loose terminal extension due to flexion contractures

12

What are two treatments of severe OA?

Arthroscopic capsular release
Arthroscopic removal of osteophytes and/or loose bodies

13

Which muscle is usually the biggest culprit in Lateral Epicondylitis?

ECRB

14

In what patients is Lateral Epicondylitis most common in?

THose >35 yrs who participate in racquet sports or occupations such as carpentry, painting etc.

15

What are some common signs/symptoms of Lateral Epicondylitis?

pain with grip especially elbow extended, no loss of ROM

16

What is done surgically if there is no success with a conservative program for lateral epicondylitis?

Surgical release of the common extensor tendon

17

What is another name for lateral epicondylitis?

Tennis elbow

18

What is the prescription for Medial Epicondylitis?

same as that for lateral epicondylitis

19

What is triceps tendonitis usually secondary to?

Sudden stress with elbow extended fully

20

When will someone experience pain with triceps tendonitis?

pain at insertion to olecranon with resisted elbow extension and passive elbow flexion

21

How would you describe an olecranon Bursitis?

Very boggy, hot, swollen, posterior elbow

22

How can you get an olecranon bursitis?

Trauma, gout, or often from prolonged pressure on the olecranon.

23

What is the Rx for Olecranon bursitis?

rest, NSAIDS, may require cortisone injection

24

What ligament is compromised with a valgus stress?

MCL

25

What ligament is stressed with a Varus stress?

LCL

26

Where does the biceps tendon usually rupture?

At the musculotendinous or tendoperiosteal juncture

27

What is a conservative treatment for a Biceps tendon rupture?

Treated with a Velpeau bandage in 90 degree flexion for 3-6 weeks

28

What is a surgical treatment for a biceps tendon?

Repaired with sutures

29

In adolescent sport injuries, what is the cause of medial joint injuries?

Traction or tensile force injuries of/at flexor forearm group

30

In adolescent sport injuries, what is the cause of Lateral joint injuries?

compression forces on the lateral joint

31

What is traction apophysitis also known as?

Little leaguers elbow, due to excessive throwing

32

What happens with traction apophysitis?

inflammation with/without micro tears of the wrist flexors at their insertion

33

What are some signs of traction apophysitis?

tenderness at medial elbow, 15 degree loss of extension ROM

34

What are some treatments from traction apophysitis?

REST!!!!! strengthening as symptoms subside

35

What is an avulsion fracture of the medial epicondyle usually secondary to?

more forceful valgus stress from a fall or violent muscle contraction

36

When do you use conservative treatment vs. surgery with an avulsion fx of the medial epicondyle?

1 cm ORIF with K wire

37

What is osteochondritis Dessicans?

Piece of the Capitillum comes off the ulna

38

What is osteochondritis Dessicans often secondary to?

trauma or avascularity

39

What is the treatment for osteochondritis Dessicans?

Arthroscopy if there is a loose body

40

What on an X-ray can be a sign of trauma?

Whiteness - sign of effusion

41

What is a distal humerus fx usually 2ndary to?

FOOSH, especially in younger pts

42

Whats the difference between an intra-articular and extra-articular distal humerus fx?

extra-articular fx's heal better due to blood supply

43

How can extra-articular distal humerus fx's be treated?

Closed reduction

44

What is an extension supracondylar fx?

distal fragment of the humerus travels posteriorly

45

What is a flexion supracondylar fracture?

distal fragment of the humerus travels anterior

46

How do they repair an intercondylar Fx?

with tension band wiring

47

what type of fx accounts for about 50% of fxs at the elbow?

radial head fxs

48

Wht will a radial head fx do to the radio-ulnar length?

can shorten radius (normally longer)
can cause sxs at wrist

49

What direction are 80% of the Adult elbow dislocations?

posterior

50

How do radial head fxs usually occur?

FOOSH

51

What is a Monteggia Fracture?

Fx of proximal 1/2-1/3 of ulna with radial head dislocation

52

What is a Galleazi Fracture?

Fx of mid to distal RADIAL shaft with subluxation of distal RU joint

53

What is cubital Tunnel syndrome?

Ulnar nerve compression within ulnar nerve tunnel at bedial elbow

54

What is anterior interosseous syndrome?

Median Nerve compression under the pronator teres

55

What is posterior interroseous syndrome?

RADIAL nerve compression under the supinator and arcade of Frohse

56

What is myositis ossificans?

Ossified inflammatory tissue within muscles, commonly occurs after a brachialis injury where bleeding occurs

57

What should you avoid with Myositis ossificans?

No vigorous stretching, no US, no massage

58

What is Volkmann's Ischemic contracture?

following injury to brachial artery leading to ischemia of muscle and nerves in forearm

59

What is Volkmann's Ischemic contracture associated with?

Supracondylar fracture, which are more common in younger patients

60

What happens if treatment is not gotten w/in 4-6 hours?

irreversible damage

61

What are signs and symptoms of Volkmann's ischemic contracture?

severe pain in forearm muscle groups
limited and very painful finger motion
purple hand color with prominent hand veins
initial paresthesiae,
eventual sensory loss
loss of radial pulse
pallor
eventual paralysis if not treated