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Musculoskeletal Pathophysiology > Musculoskeletal Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Diseases Deck (33):
1

Calcitonin is secreted by the ____.

thryoid

2

_____ decreases bone resorption by suppressing osteoclast activity.

Calcitonin

3

Parathyroid hormone regulates blood level of ___.

Calcium

4

How does parathyroid hormone influence blood levels of Ca?

osteoclastic activity to release CA form bone’
resorption of Ca from kidney
resorption of phosphate

5

Peak bone mass occurs at ages __-__.

20-40

6

The degree of bone mineralization is called:

bone density

7

increased resorption of bone due to inc. osteoclastic activity occurs at ages __-__.

40-70

8

Rapid decrease in bone mass occurs with menopause. __% per year for 5 years initially, and __% later.

3%
0.3%

9

Too little bone

osteopenia

10

Too little bone mass

osteoporosis

11

Too little bone mineralization

osteomalacia

12

What is the biggest reason alcoholism leads to bony changes?

malabsorption of nutrients

13

Osteoporosis risk factors

post-menapause
low BMI
smokers
family hx
caucasian/asian > african american

14

What is a T-score?

normal value for a young adult female

15

What is a Z score?

value for your age range

16

What is the T score classification for osteopenia?

-1 to -2.5 SD from average

17

What is the T score classification for osteoporosis?

-2.5 or more SD from average

18

When do you begin to see changes on Xray?

> 30% bone mass lost

19

Senile osteoporosis age and gender incidence:

7th/8th decades
men = women

20

Clinical features of senile osteoporosis?

dowagers hump, exaggerated rib, pubic rami fx

21

Intervention/prevention Ca recommendations:

adults > 50 yrs 1200
adults < 50 yrs 1000 mg
*dairy, green, veggies

22

Intervention/prevention D3 recommendations:

adults > 50 yrs 800-1000
adults < 50 yrs 400-800
*egg yolks, fortified milk, saltwater fish

23

Bisphosonate examples:

fosamaz, actonel, boniva, reclast

24

Osteoporosis medication examples:

bisphophonates
calcitonin
hormone replacement
evista
parathyroid hormone

25

PT considerations for osteoporosis?

WB exercises
Posture
Fall prevention
Bracing to resist flexion (post vertebral fx)

26

Which fractures are most likely in osteoporosis?

Wrist
hip
vertebral

27

Childhood osteomalacia is known as:

rickets

28

What is a looser zone?

wide linear lucent in the cortex of a long bone
(finding in osteomalacia.. at risk for fx)

29

Paget disease age and gender incidence:

male = female
50 years

30

Paget disease is characterized by:

unorganized bony formation that can lead to:
thickened skull, tibial bowing, nerve compression, varus deformity, flexed posture

31

Biggest issue for children with osteomalacia:

affects endochondral growth plates

32

Biggest issue for adults with osteomalacia:

Ca does not get deposited in new bone

33

What is osteomalacia?

inadequate mineralization of bone, systemic vitamin D deficiency