Flashcards in Electrolye Signs and Symptoms Deck (61)
What system does unbalanced Sodium mess up?
What system does unbalanced Potassium mess up?
What systems does unbalanced Calcium mess up?
Nervous, muscular, and bone
What system does unbalanced Magnesium mess up?
What system does unbalanced Phosphorus mess up?
Energy and metabolism (ATP)
What can unbalanced chloride mess up?
Osmotic Pressure and Digestion
What can cause hyponatremia?
Loss of sodium and water, inadequate take, BURNS, DIARRHEA, VOMITING, CHF, liver cirrhosis, renal failure, DIURETICS, adrenal insufficiency, HYPOTHYROIDISM, SIADH
What are signs and symptoms of hyponatremia?
HEADACHE, LETHARGY, CONFUSION, seizures, coma, nausea, vomiting, HYPOREFLEXIA, WEAKNESS
How can the nurse treat hyponatremia?
Increase environmental safety, RUN IV FLUIDS (HYPERTONIC), DIURETICS/FLUID RESTRICTION, MONITOR I/Os, treat the underlying cause,
What are the nursing diagnoses that accompany hyponatremia?
Impaired mental status, excess fluid volume, risk for impaired sensory perception, risk for injury, risk for electrolyte imbalance
What causes hypernatremia?
Fluid volume loss or excess intake, bicarbonates
What are the signs and symptoms of hypernatremia?
Extreme thirst, INCREASED NEURO ACTIVITY, flushed skin, fever
How can the nurse treat hypernatremia?
MONITOR I/Os, gradually reduce to normal with adequate water or NSS
What nursing diagnoses accompany Hypernatremia?
Risk for injury, risk for fluid volume deficit, impaired physical mobility, impaired sensory perception, risk for impaired oral mucous membranes
What causes hypokalemia?
Diuretics (ALDACTONE), diarrhea, vomiting, starvation, GI SUCTION, LAXATIVE ABUSE, enemas, DIGOXIN, albuterol, INSULIN
What are the signs and symptoms of hypokalemia?
WEAKNESS, PARALYSIS, muscle pain, PARESTHESIA, weak/thready pulse, DYSRRHYTHMIAS, HEART BLOCK, shallow respiration, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, constipation, DECREASED GI MOTILITY
What does the severity of the signs and symptoms of hypokalemia depend on?
The rate that the decrease in levels happens
How should the nurse treat hypokalemia?
How should Potassium be given?
Never push it and never exceed 20 mEq/L
What nursing diagnoses should accompany hypokalemia?
Decrease cardiac output, risk for injury, ineffective breathing pattern, constipation, fatigue
What causes hyperkalemia?
Excessive potassium intake, decreased potassium excretion, BURNS, CHEMO, severe muscle injury
What is potassium excreted in?
What are the signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia?
Weakness, malaise, nausea, diarrhea, parasthesias, CRAMPS, flaccid limb paralysis, DYSRRHYTHMIAS, BRADYCARDIA, HEART BLOCK, DECREASED BP
How can the nurse treat hyperkalemia?
Stop all infusion potassium, LOOP DIURETICS, CALCIUM, INSULIN, kayexalate, albuterol, DIALYSIS
What nursing diagnoses should accompany hyperkalemia?
Risk for decreased cardiac output, risk for injury, diarrhea r/t neuromuscular changes and GI irritability
What causes hypocalcemia?
Inhibition of GI absorption, increased excretion, decreased ionized calcium, endocrine disturbance, PARATHYROID function, hypomagnesemia
What are the signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia?
PARASTHESIA, SEIZURES, cramps, TETANY, TREMORS, CONFUSION, irritability, DYSRRHYTHMIAS, laryngospasm, ALTERED CLOTTING, BLEEDING, bruising
How can the nurse expect to treat hypocalcemia?
Calcium gluconate, calcium chloride, oral calcium, ADEQUATE HYDRATION
How should calcium gluconate be administered?
Very slow IV Push