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Flashcards in Electrolye Signs and Symptoms Deck (61)
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What system does unbalanced Sodium mess up?

Neurological state

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What system does unbalanced Potassium mess up?

Cardiac function

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What systems does unbalanced Calcium mess up?

Nervous, muscular, and bone

3

What system does unbalanced Magnesium mess up?

Nervous

4

What system does unbalanced Phosphorus mess up?

Energy and metabolism (ATP)

5

What can unbalanced chloride mess up?

Osmotic Pressure and Digestion

6

What can cause hyponatremia?

Loss of sodium and water, inadequate take, BURNS, DIARRHEA, VOMITING, CHF, liver cirrhosis, renal failure, DIURETICS, adrenal insufficiency, HYPOTHYROIDISM, SIADH

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What are signs and symptoms of hyponatremia?

HEADACHE, LETHARGY, CONFUSION, seizures, coma, nausea, vomiting, HYPOREFLEXIA, WEAKNESS

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How can the nurse treat hyponatremia?

Increase environmental safety, RUN IV FLUIDS (HYPERTONIC), DIURETICS/FLUID RESTRICTION, MONITOR I/Os, treat the underlying cause,

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What are the nursing diagnoses that accompany hyponatremia?

Impaired mental status, excess fluid volume, risk for impaired sensory perception, risk for injury, risk for electrolyte imbalance

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What causes hypernatremia?

Fluid volume loss or excess intake, bicarbonates

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What are the signs and symptoms of hypernatremia?

Extreme thirst, INCREASED NEURO ACTIVITY, flushed skin, fever

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How can the nurse treat hypernatremia?

MONITOR I/Os, gradually reduce to normal with adequate water or NSS

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What nursing diagnoses accompany Hypernatremia?

Risk for injury, risk for fluid volume deficit, impaired physical mobility, impaired sensory perception, risk for impaired oral mucous membranes

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What causes hypokalemia?

Diuretics (ALDACTONE), diarrhea, vomiting, starvation, GI SUCTION, LAXATIVE ABUSE, enemas, DIGOXIN, albuterol, INSULIN

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What are the signs and symptoms of hypokalemia?

WEAKNESS, PARALYSIS, muscle pain, PARESTHESIA, weak/thready pulse, DYSRRHYTHMIAS, HEART BLOCK, shallow respiration, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, constipation, DECREASED GI MOTILITY

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What does the severity of the signs and symptoms of hypokalemia depend on?

The rate that the decrease in levels happens

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How should the nurse treat hypokalemia?

Potassium supplements

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How should Potassium be given?

Never push it and never exceed 20 mEq/L

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What nursing diagnoses should accompany hypokalemia?

Decrease cardiac output, risk for injury, ineffective breathing pattern, constipation, fatigue

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What causes hyperkalemia?

Excessive potassium intake, decreased potassium excretion, BURNS, CHEMO, severe muscle injury

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What is potassium excreted in?

Urine

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What are the signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia?

Weakness, malaise, nausea, diarrhea, parasthesias, CRAMPS, flaccid limb paralysis, DYSRRHYTHMIAS, BRADYCARDIA, HEART BLOCK, DECREASED BP

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How can the nurse treat hyperkalemia?

Stop all infusion potassium, LOOP DIURETICS, CALCIUM, INSULIN, kayexalate, albuterol, DIALYSIS

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What nursing diagnoses should accompany hyperkalemia?

Risk for decreased cardiac output, risk for injury, diarrhea r/t neuromuscular changes and GI irritability

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What causes hypocalcemia?

Inhibition of GI absorption, increased excretion, decreased ionized calcium, endocrine disturbance, PARATHYROID function, hypomagnesemia

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What are the signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia?

PARASTHESIA, SEIZURES, cramps, TETANY, TREMORS, CONFUSION, irritability, DYSRRHYTHMIAS, laryngospasm, ALTERED CLOTTING, BLEEDING, bruising

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How can the nurse expect to treat hypocalcemia?

Calcium gluconate, calcium chloride, oral calcium, ADEQUATE HYDRATION

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How should calcium gluconate be administered?

Very slow IV Push

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What nursing diagnoses accompany hypocalcemia?

Decreased cardiac output, risk for injury r/t muscle contraction, imbalanced nutrition