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Flashcards in Lab Tests Deck (81)
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What eight values does a Basic Metabolic Panel test?

Glucose, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Carbon Dioxide, Calcium, Creatinine, and BUN

1

What is the difference between a Comprehensive Medical Panel and a Basic Metabolic Panel?

The comprehensive medical panel has all the tests as the basic metabolic panel plus Albumin, Total Protein, and the liver tests of liver function

2

What are the tests for liver function?

ALP, ALT, AST, and Bilirubin

3

Volume of packed RBCs in 100 mL of blood

Hematocrit

4

In what diseases is hematocrit lowered?

Acute blood loss, anemia, cancers, cirrhosis, malnutrition, vitamin B and C deficiencies, leukemia, and renal failure

5

In what conditions is hematocrit increased?

Dehydration, hypovolemia, and polycythemia vera

6

Which drug can cause a low hematocrit?

Penicillin

7

What is the critical value of hematocrit?

<15%

8

What can a critically low hematocrit lead to?

Heart Failure

9

A protein substance in RBCs that is composed of an iron and globin?

Hemoglobin

10

What conditions can lead to decreased hemoglobin levels?

Anemia, cancers, kidney disease, and excess IV fluid

11

What conditions cause increased hemoglobin levels?

Dehydration, polycythemia, high altitudes, and COPD

12

Low hemoglobin levels put the patient at risk for what complications?

Angina, heart attack, and heart failure

13

Too high hemoglobin levels can lead to what complications?

Stroke and organ infaction

14

What are the critical values of hemoglobin?

20

15

What are signs and symptoms of anemia?

Fatigue, pallor, and tachycardia

16

What is the appropriate BUN range?

10-20 mg/dL

17

What is a BUN level a measure of?

Liver function, and indirectly, kidney function

18

What conditions result in abnormally low BUN levels?

Liver failure, over hydration, negative nitrogen balance, nephrotic syndrome and a low protein diet

19

What causes a negative nitrogen balance?

Malnutrition and malabsorption

20

What is the medical term for increased BUN levels?

Azotemia

21

What are the prerenal causes of azotemia?

Reduced blood volume, reduced renal blood flow, GI bleeding, excessive protein feeding, excess protein catabolism, and sepsis

22

What conditions might cause reduced blood flow to the kidneys?

CHF and MI

23

What are the renal causes of azotemia?

Renal disease, renal failure, and nephrotoxic drugs

24

What are the postrenal causes of azotemia?

Urethral obstruction and bladder obstruction

25

What is creatinine a byproduct of?

Muscle catabolism

26

What are the normal ranges of Creatinine in males and females?

0.6-1.2 in males, 0.5-1.1 in females

27

What do high creatinine levels indicate?

Acute and chronic renal failure, reduced renal blood flow, cancers, lupus, and rhabdomyolysis

28

What do decreased creatinine levels indicate?

Muscle atrophy and reduced muscle mass

29

What can cause a transient elevation in creatinine levels?

Diets high in meat