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Flashcards in Emergency medicine Deck (75):
1

What core temp is considered mild hypothermia

34-36

2

What core temp is severe hypothermia

<30 C

3

symptoms of severe hypothermia

fixed dilated pupils, v-fib

4

at what temp does a person lose their shivering reflex, have mild alterlations in consciousness, bradycardia

30-34

5

Treatment for hypothermia

warming blankets, warm IV fluids, heated O2,

6

Gold standard for severe hypothermia

extracorpeal blood rewarming

7

Tx for forstbite

rewarm, hyperbaric oxygen, surgical debridement

8

Alterations in mental status, multiorgan dysfunction, core temp >104, HA, seizures

heat stroke

9

symptoms of high altuitude sickness

HA, nausea, fatigue, weakness, insomnia

10

Tx for high altitude sickness

descent, oxygen, antiemetics,

11

Tx for high altitude sickness is descent isn't possible

dexamethasone or acetazolamide

12

What are the 2 main classes of poisonous snakes?

pit vipers and elapids

13

what type snakes are elapids?

coral snakes, cobras

14

spider bite with severe pain, muscle spasms of abdomen and trunk, severe HTN, tachycardia

black widow spider

15

TX for black widow spider bite

narcotic analgesics, local ice, antivenom only for seriously ill

16

What does a brown recluse spider look like?

dark, violin shaped area on its back

17

What does the cytotoxic venom from a borwn recluse spider cause?

tissue necrosis and hemolysis

18

Tx for brown recluse spider bite

dapsone

19

antidote for anticholinergic poisoning

physostigmine

20

tx for anticholinesterase poisoning (physostigmine, organophosphates)

atropine

21

Tx for benzo OD

flumazenil

22

Tx for beta blocker OD

glucagon

23

Tx for CCB OD

calcium

24

Tx for carbon monoxide poisoning

100% oxygen

25

Tx for cyanide poisoning

sodium nitrite

26

tx for digoxin OD

Digibind

27

Tx for iron OD

deferoxamine

28

Tx for lead OD

EDTA

29

Tx for arsenic/ mercury OD

penicillamine

30

Tx for heparin OD

protamine

31

T for isonizid OD

pyridoxine (vitamin B6)

32

Tx for methanol, ethylene glycol OD

Ethanol

33

Tx for narcotics OD

naloxone

34

Tx for tricyclic antidepressant OD

sodium bicarb

35

tx for warfarin OD

Vitamin K

36

Tx for hypovolemic shock

20 cc fluids/kg, blood +/- surgery

37

Tx for cardiogenic shock

MI treatments, vasopressors, IABP (intraaortic balloon pump)

38

Tx for anaphylactic shock

0.3-0.5 SQ einephrine, albuterol, steroids

39

Presents with fever, tachypnea, leukocytosis, HPOTN, decreased systemic vascular resistance

septic shock

40

Signs of neurogenic shock

spinal cord injury, HPOTN due to loss of vascular tone, warm flushed skin

41

how long does it take 2nd degree (partial thickness) burns to heal?

14-21 days

42

Do third degree burns heal on their own?

No

43

will third degree burns have any sensation?

no

44

For the rules of 9s , what body parts are worth "nine"

head/neck
Right arm
Left arm

45

For the rules of 9s which body parts are work 18?

torso front
torso back
Right leg
left leg

46

Tx for hypernatremia

hypotnoic solution (D5W)

47

Causes of hypokalemia

diuretics, vomiting, diarrhea, Cushign syndrome, Mag depletion, poor intake

48

S/S for hypokalemia

weakness, paralytic ileus, a/v tach, v fib

49

what will EKG show with hypokalemia

decreased T wave amplitude, T wave inversion, ST depression, U wave, prolonged QT< v-tach, torsades

50

Causes of hyperkalemia

renal failure, ACEI, spironolactone, digoxin, Addison's, oral potassium excess

51

ECG findings with hyperkalemia

peaked T waves, QRS widening, v-fib

52

Tx for hyperkalemia

IV calcium, IV lasix, glucose, insulin, kayexalate, albuterol, dialysis

53

causes of hypercalcemia

hyperparathyroidism
malignancies (bone, lyphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma)

54

drugs that can cause hypercalcemia

tamoxifen, thiazides, VIt A, VIt D

55

presents with lethargy, depression, atatxis, psychosis, neuromuscular weakness, renal stones, decreased GFR

hypercalcemia

56

what will you see in the eye with hypercalcemia?

bank keratopathy

57

Tx for hypercalcemia

hydration with normal saline, loop ciuretic, calcitonin, IV bisphosphonates

58

what is the most common cause of hypocalcemia?

chronic kidney disease

59

WHat are other causes of hypocalcemia?

hypoalbuminemia, hypoparathyroidism, VItamin D deficiency, magnesium depletion

60

S/S of hypocalcemia

tetany, paresthesias in fingers and mouth, carpopedal spasm

61

sign that is contraction of the facial muscle in response to tapping the facial nerve

Chvostek's sign (hypocalcemia)

62

carpal spasm occuring with BP cuff inflation

Trousseau's sign (hypocalcemia)

63

what will happen to the QT interval with hypocalcemia?

prolongation of the QT interval

64

Tx for hypocalcemia

Calcium chloride, calcium gluconate

65

Tx for acute asthma attack

oxygen, Beta agonists (repeated) IV magnesium, BiPAP, intubation, systemic steroids

66

diagnosis of an acute pulmonary embolism

pulmonary angiogram

67

Tx for acute pulmonary embolism

oygen, anticoagulation, thrombolytic therapy

68

S/S of PE

acute dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, tachpnea, tachycardia, hypoxia

69

causes of respiratory acidosis

COPD, narcotics, airway obstruction, pneumonia

70

Tx for respiratory acidosis

BIpAP, intubation (reverse underlying process)

71

what is MUDPILES (metabolic acidosis)

methanol
uremia
diabetic ketoacidosis
Paraladehyde
Ibuprofen/ INH/ Iron
Lactic acidosis
Ethylene glycol
Salicylates (aspiring)

72

causes of metabolic alkalosis

vomiting, volume depletion (diuretics), primary aldosteronism

73

Tx for metabolic alkalosis

acetazolamide

74

caues of respiratory alkalosis (pH>7.45 pCO2<350

hyperventlation, early shock, CVA, anxiety, pulmonary disease

75

S/S of respiratory alkalosis

circumoral and digitial paresthesias, carpopedeal spasm, dizziness, confusion