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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (97):
1

a radiculopathy involving lumbar nerves 2-4 causes what?

creased hip flexion and knee extension

2

a non-dermatomal neuropathy that often follows soft tissue injuries or fractures. Presents with limb pain, swelling, reduced ROM, skin changes.

Complex regional pain syndrome

3

Tx for complex regional pain syndrome

gabapentin, TCAs, bisphosphnates, steroids

4

what may an x-ray show with complex regional pain syndrome

patchy demineralization

5

causes of slow onset peripheral neuropathy

DM, uremia, B12 deficiency, HIV

6

Hereditary peripheral neuropathy. Early distal muscles weakness/ difficultly running. Loss of reflexes, "stork leg deformity" and hammer toe. WIll have sensory loss. Sleep apnea common

Hereditary Charcot-Marie Tooth

7

sponaneous, continuous leg movement at rest. Associated with unpleasent paresthesiasas. Associated with iron def anemia, end stage renal dz, MS, DM

Restless leg syndrome

8

Tx for RLS

dopaine agonist (pramipexole, ropinirole)

9

what is ramsay hunt syndrome?

zoster + bell's palsy

10

Tx for bell's palsy

oral steroids, antivirals in severe cases. need artifical tears/ eye ointments at night

11

what is the most common cranial neuropathy associated with lyme meningitits

facial nerve plasy (CN VII)

12

Pnuemonic for warfarin indications

CHADs(2) CHF, HTN, >75, DM Stroke (2 point), if any are greater than 2= warfarin therapy

13

Pneumonic for posterior circulation stroke (VANISH'D)

Vertigo, ataxia, nystamus, intention tremor, slurred speech, hell-shin test, dysdiadochkinesia, broad based gait

14

location of brain tumor that presents with kip smakcing, olfactory or gustatotry hallucinations

temporal lobe

15

lobe with sensory seizures or sensory loss

parietal lobe

16

shape of epidural bleed on CT

biconvex lens shaped appearance

17

shape of subdural bleed on CT

crescent-shapped

18

tx for subdural hematoma

burr holes or craniotomy

19

hallmark of sturge weber syndrome

port wine stain

20

type of simple partial motor seizure where there are small jerking movements at the hand or face then spread to other motor areas.

Jacksonian seizure

21

first line drug for partial seizures

carbamazepine

22

first line drug for absence seizures

ethosuximide

23

antiepileptic taht is teratogenic, can result in gum hypertophy.

phenytoin

24

antiepileptic that is highly teratogenic and will reduce efficacy of OCPs

sodium valproate

25

how do most antiepileptic drugs work?

inhibit sodium channels

26

tx for status epilepticus

lorazepam IV, IV phenytoin to follow .I f refractory then phenobarbital

27

hyperkinetic moement disorder that occurs w/ delayed onset after prolonged use of antipsychotic drugs, and meotclopramide

tardive dyskinesia

28

Tx for guillain-Barre

plasma exhcange, IVIG

29

LP findings with guillain-barre

elevated CSF protein with normal CSF WBC

30

Most common infection that proceededs guillain barre

campylobacter jejuni (also CMV, epstein-Barr, HIV)

31

Signs of autonomic dysfunction with guillain barre

tachycardia, urinary retnteion, loss of sweating, ileus

32

Tx for myasthenia gravis

pyridostigmine, immunosupressants, thymectomy, acute plasmapharesis and IVIG (short duration)

33

4 meds that can cause guillain barre

aminoglycoside abx, mag sulfate, penicillamine, interferson alpha

34

tx for bacterial meningitits

dexamethasone, ceftriaxone, vanco, amipcillin

35

number of cause of asepctic meningitits

enterovirus

36

flexion of the hips during attempted passive flexion of the neck

Brudzinskis sign

37

inability to allow full extension of the knee when hip is flexed at ninety degrees

Kernig's sign

38

negri bodies are associated with with?

rabies

39

dementia with fluctuating cognition, recurrent visual hallucinations, and spontaneous motor features of parkinsonism

dementia w/ lewy bodies

40

dementia with fluctuating cognition, recurrent visual hallucinations, and spontaneous motor features of parkinsonism

dementia w/ lewy bodies

41

CN palsy that presents with medial turning of affected eye

CN VI (abducens

42

CN palsy that presents with vertical diploplia

CN IV (trochlear)

43

Radiating electrical sensation down the spine with neck flexion seen in patients with MS

Lhermitte's phenomenon

44

Dx test for myasthenia gravis

Edrophonium (Tensilon) test

45

CSF findings w/ myasthenia gravis

albuminocytologic dissociation

46

Tx for huntington's chorea

tetrabenazine

47

reflexive, sustained eye blinking in response to repetitive taping just above the nasal bridge between the eyes. Observed in individuals with parkinsons

Myerson sign

48

nerve that supplies the 4th and 5th digits

ulnar nerve

49

injuries to this area cause pain and weakness of the shoulder and sensory problems of the lateral arm

bracial plexus

50

nerve that supplies the dorsal hand

radial

51

DOC in trigeminal neuralgia

carbamazepina/ oxcarbazepine

52

presents with foot drop and lateral paresthesais. Often due to compress of the nerve at the head and neck of the fibula

peroneal nere contusion

53

presents with pain or paresthesia of the outer aspect of teh thigh

meralgia paresthetica

54

presents with weakness and wasting of the quadriceps muscles

femoral neuropathy

55

what will an absence seizures show on EEG

spike and wave activity

56

what will an absence seizures show on EEG

spike and wave activity

57

are anticholinergics helpful with bradykinesia in parkinson

No, only helpful with tremor and rigidity

58

condition with cavitary destruction within the spinal cord resulting in both motor and sensory deficits

syringomyelia

59

what PE finding supports a diagnosis of mesencephalic lesion

downward conjugate deviation

60

a lateral conjugate deviation supports a lesion where?

pontine lesion

61

a lack of doll's eye response indicates a lesion where?

brainstem

62

long-standing prion disease. manifests with parkinsonian features, dementia, jerking movements

creutzfeldt-jakob syndrome

63

an occlusion in what artery often results in homonymous hemianopia

middle cerebral artery

64

what is alexia?

inability to understand written words

65

alexia is seen in what type of occlusion?

posterior cerebral artery

66

most common organism isolated in dog or cat bites

pasturella

67

dopamine agonist that is initial treatment of choice for prolactinoma

cabergoline

68

what does sciatic nerve impingement cause?

loss of ankle deep tendon reflex, weakness of hamstring muscles, decreased sensation over the lateral calf and heel

69

what does sciatic nerve impingement cause?

loss of ankle deep tendon reflex, weakness of hamstring muscles, decreased sensation over the lateral calf and heel

70

weakness of the gastrocnemius muscle (plantar flexion) Is specific for what radiculopathy?

S1

71

antidote for atropine poisoning

physostigmine

72

which CN moves eye down and medial

trochlear (IV)

73

which CN does lateral eye movement

abducens (VI)

74

constant, generalized HA with possible visual loss. Will have elevated CSF opening pressure.

pseudotumor cerebri (idiopathic intracrnail HTN)

75

type of partial seizure that often has an aura

complex partial seizure

76

Tremor that improves with alcohol

essential tremor

77

what can make an essential tremor worse

stress, lack of sleep, caffeine

78

tx for essential tremor

beta blockers, primidone

79

4 cardinal signs of parkinsons

rigidity, bradykinesia, restin tremor postural instability

80

2 treatments for MS

steroids, interferon-B

81

impaired attention and cognition, motor hyper or hypoactivity, altered states of arousal

delirium

82

impaired attention and cognition, motor hyper or hypoactivity, altered states of arousal

delirium

83

most common cause of bacterial meningitits in adults

strep pneumoniae

84

if mengitits is caused by listeria (common in immunocomprpomised people) what must be added?

ampicillin

85

Upper and lower motor neuron dysfuction. Loss of speech, progressive weakness

ALS

86

what growth can be present in patients with myastehnia gravis?

Thymoma

87

presents with dry mouth, diploplia, dysphagia, dyarthria, descending weakness

botulism

88

most common neuroectodermal tumor

astrocytoma

89

agressive anaplastic type of astrocytoma, enhancing irregular mass, poor prognosis

glioblastoma multiforme

90

Most common mesodermal trumor, usually benign and slow growing. can cause HA, seizure, focal signs

meningiomas

91

most common CN tumor

schwannomas

92

most common brian tumor overall

metastatic tumors

93

How do MAO-B inhibitors help with parkinsons

inhibit catabolism of dopamine

94

examples of MAO-B inhibitors

rasagiline, selegiline

95

examples of MAO-B inhibitors

rasagiline, selegiline

96

condition associated with AVM

osler-weber-rendu

97

encephalitits with falccid paralysis + maculopapular rash is due to what?

west nile virus