Emergency Medicine/Toxicology Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 3 MTB > Emergency Medicine/Toxicology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Emergency Medicine/Toxicology Deck (26)
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1

antidote for acetaminophen

N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)

2

antidote for aspirin

bicarbonate to alkalinize the urine

3

antidote for benzodiazepines

NOTHING; let the patient sleep!

do NOT give flumazenil; may precipitate seizure

4

antidote for carbon monoxide (CO)

100% O2; hyperbaric if needed

5

antidote for digoxin

digoxin-binding Abs (Digibind)

6

antidote for ethylene glycol

fomepizole or ethanol

7

antidote for methanol

fomepizole or ethanol

8

antidote for methemoglobinemia

methylene blue

9

antidote for neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)

bromocriptine or dantrolene

10

antidote for opiates

naloxone

11

antidote for organophosphates

atropine or pralidoxime

12

antidote for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)

bicarbonate to protect the heart; check EKG 1st for wide QRS

13

how much time do you have to give N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in acetaminophen toxicity to prevent liver damage?

24 hours

14

what happens in aspirin/salicylate overdose?

1. respiratory alkalosis (hyperventilation) b/c its a direct stimulant to the brainstem
2. metabolic acidosis (d/t loss of Krebs cycle in mitochondria)
3. renal insufficiency, Elevated PT (interferes with Vitamin K depen. clotting factors

15

what should you order on all overdose patients?

aspirin, acetaminophen, and EtOH levels

16

_____ may lead to digoxin toxicity, but digoxin toxicity may lead to _____

- hypOkalemia
- hypERkalemia

17

cyanosis with normal pO2 THINK OF

methemoglobinemia

18

hypothermia EKG finding

J-waves of Osborn (like ST elevation)

19

- RED eye and fixed midpoint pupil
- rock-hard
- painful
DX. w/

acute angle closure glaucoma
*tonometry
TX: pilocarpine drops, acetazolamide, Mannitol, topical Beta blockers

20

sudden loss of vision like "a curtain coming down"

retinal detachment

21

- RED eye
- B/L watery d/c
- itchy eyes

viral conjunctivitis

22

- RED eye
- U/L purulent d/c
- eyelids stuck together

bacterial conjunctivitis
Tx: topical ABX

23

- RED eye
- h/o trauma
- most commonly from contact lenses

abrasion

24

Acute mental status change from overdose of unclear etiology. Tx

Naloxone, thiamine and dextrose

25

Alkalinization of urine will help excrete

ASA, TCA, phenobarbital, chlorpropamide

26

RED eye
Photophobia

Uveitis
Dx: slit lamp exam
tx: Steroids