Endocrinology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (145)
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1

diagnosis for diabetes made by ONE of the following (4 different ways)

1. 2 FASTING glucose greater than or equal to 126
2. ONE RANDOM glucose greater than or equal to 200 WITH symptoms (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia)
3. ABNORMAL GTT (2-hour GTT with 75G glucose load)
4. HbA1c greater than 6.5%

2

STRONGEST indication for screening for diabetes

HTN

3

mechanism for type 2 diabetes

excess fat = insulin deficiency

4

best INITIAL treatment for type 2 diabetes

- DIET
- EXERCISE
- WEIGHT LOSS

5

best INITIAL MEDICAL treatment for type 2 diabetes

metformin (biguanide)

6

metformin MOA

blocks gluconeogenesis

7

main advantages of metformin (2)

- no risk of hypOglycemia
- does NOT increase obesity

8

metformin CONTRAindications (2 main ones)

- renal insufficiency
- use of contrast

9

name the sulfonylureas (3)

- glyburide
- glimepiride
- glipizide

10

sulfonylurea MOA

increase insulin RELEASE from pancreas

11

sulfonylurea ADVERSE EFFECTS (2 main ones)

- hypOglycemia
- SIADH

12

name the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors

- sitaGLIPTIN
- linaGLIPTIN
- aloGLIPTIN
- saxaGLIPTIN

13

dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor MOA

block metabolism of INCRETINS

14

mechanism of incretins (GLP and GIP)

(GLP = glucagon-like peptide)
(GIP = glucose insulinotropic peptide)

increase insulin and decrease glucagon secretion from pancreas

15

name the thiazolidinediones

- rosiGLITAZONE
- pioGLITAZONE

16

thiazolidinedione MOA

increase PERIPHERAL insulin sensitivity

17

thiazolidinediones CONTRAindication

CHF

18

name the a-glucosidase inhibitors

- acarbose
- miglitol

19

a-glucosidase inhibitor MOA

block glucose ABSORPTION in intestinal lining

20

name the insulin secretagogues

- nateGLINIDE
- repaGLINIDE

21

secretagogue MOA

increase insulin RELEASE from pancreas

22

name the SGLT inhibitors (sodium-glucose transport)

- canaGLIFLOZIN
- dapaGLIFLOZIN
- empaGLIFLOZIN

23

SGLT inhibitor MOA

inhibits glucose reabsorption in kidneys

24

name the GLP (glucagon insulinotropic peptide) analogs

- exenaTIDE
- liragluTIDE

25

GLP analog MOA

slow gastric emptying and promote weight loss

26

name long-acting insulin

- glargine (daily)
- detemir (daily, or Q12H)
- NPH (Q12H)

27

name short-acting insulin

- aspart
- lispro
- glulisine

28

mechanism for type 1 diabetes

underproduction of insulin d/t destruction of pancreas

29

DKA presentation

- hyperventilation d/t metabolic acidosis
- "fruity" breath from acetone
- confusion from hyperosmolar state

30

best INITIAL tests for DKA

- chemistry
- arterial blood gas
- acetone level