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Flashcards in Employment Deck (17):


The extraction of raw materials from the ground or sea eg fisherman, miner



The manufacture of goods using raw materials eg factory worker, carpenter



The provision of a service eg teacher, banker



The provision of information and expert help eg professor


Primary decline in UK

Depletion of resources- 2007, amount of coal decreased to 17 million tonnes, only 5500 employed in this sector
Social change- people no longer want to do the jobs as they believe them to be dirty
Cheaper imports- cheaper to import crops from abroad, rather than growing them in our own country
Mechanisation- less jobs on offer eg in agriculture


Human factors leading to secondary growth in China

500,000 expected to move into China's cities in the next decade, easier to locate people to employ if factories are built in the city, more factories built to ensure employment
New roads built, makes access to jobs in factories easier


Physical factors leading to secondary growth in China

Perfect geographical location, situated within many trade routes, meaning good can be imported and exported without difficulty


Environmental impacts of growth in secondary sector- China

Positive - aim to reduce energy consumption by 20%
- 16% of energy renewable by 2016
Negative - 75% of energy still produced by coal
- 16 out of the 20 most polluted cities are in China
- 760,000 deaths a year due to water and air pollution


Social impacts of growth in secondary sector- China

Positive- 210,000 employed in Nike
- 500,000 employed in Apple
Negative - out of 210,000 employed in Nike, 167 found t be under age
- Apple charges £1.12 an hour, can sometimes be asked to work 24-hour shifts
- appalling working conditions, over crowded, excluded from health care system


Secondary sector decline in the UK

Automation- Honda factory robots used to paint the cars in Swindon, less of demand for jobs in this field
Globalisation- easier ad cheaper to import and export goods than ever before. Also, a global shift has occurred in NICs, causing a decline in HICs eg UK
Cheaper production in LICs- some countries have much lower labour costs than in HICs, making it cheaper to import goods than to manufacture them ourselves


Location of primary industry- china clay in St Austall, Cornwall

China clay only located in South-West England
Definite market- by 1860 65,000 tonnes mined each year
Transport to factories where it could be made into porcelain was easier as it could be moved via train and tram
Reserve set to last another 100 years
80% used in paper-making industry, 12% used in ceramic industry


Location of secondary industry- Nissan, Sunderland

Land offered at agricultural prices (£1,800 per acre)
Industrial decline due to closure of Tyne and Wear shipyards and Durham coalmines meant that Nissan had a large, eager to work and highly-skilled work force of 5000 to employ
5 miles from Port of Tyne, easy driving distance of Newcastle Airport, near A1 and A19 (major trucks roads) for easy transportation


Location of tertiary industry- Metro Centre

1.5 million live within 30mins driving distance
3 million live within 60 mins driving distance
Provides lbour force of 7000
Near A1 for easy access
120 acres offered for £100,000 due to the fact that the land was in need of re development due to pollution (government incentive)


Tertiary sector growth in UK

Decline in primary and secondary employment
Disposable income- gym membership increased by 12% since 1980's
- between 1987 and 2006 the amount of money spent on non-essential items doubled
- on average households are becoming richer so they have more money to spend on non essential items
Demographic changes - more people are marrying and having children later, more money to spend on entertainment eg holidays
- ageing population, Saga set up to provide services for the elderly eg holidays due to the fact that they have more disposable income to spend on entertainment purposes eg holidays
Advances in technology- in 2000, 350,000 worked in call centres, by 2008 this increased to 950,000
- increase in internet, meaning more people have the ability to shop online


Positive impacts of de-industrialisation- Reading

Green Park employs 7000 people, those previously unemployed due to de-industrialisation of gravel quarries are now employed
Copthome Hotel next to a 10 acre lake used for activities eg water sports, environment improved as a lake is put in place, economy benefitted due to hotel


Social impacts of de-industrialisation- Eden Project

Positive- the Clay Trials (set up in 2005) are popular with dog walkers and horse riders
- employs 700 people directly, supports another 3000 tourism related jobs locally
Negative - 1974 - 6000 employed, now only 1000 employed


Environmental impacts of de-industrialisation- Eden Project

Positive- Imery's provides sand which is dug into the soil to improve drainage
Negative- tourists create damage due to littering and spoiling the natural scenery on offer
- travelling increases road and vehicle congestion
- scars left on the landscape